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Categories containing this gene/protein

transition state regulators, cell envelope stress proteins (controlled by SigM, V, W, X, Y)

This gene is a member of the following regulons

SigM regulon, SigX regulon

The Abh regulon


  • Coordinates on the chromosome (coding sequence): 1,517,865 -> 1,518,143
  • Phenotypes of a mutant

  • inactivation of abh results in sensitivity against beta-lactam antibiotics that can be restored by induction of slrR expression or by inactivation of the genes encoding major autolysins (lytC, lytF) PubMed
  • The protein

    Catalyzed reaction/ biological activity

    Protein family

    Paralogous protein(s)

  • AbrB, SpoVT (only N-terminal domain)
  • Kinetic information




    Effectors of protein activity


  • 2FY9 (N-terminal DNA recognition domain)
  • Localization


  • Abh-Abh PubMed
  • AbrB-Abh PubMed
  • Additional information

    Expression and Regulation


  • abh PubMed
  • Sigma factor

  • SigX PubMed, SigM PubMed
  • Regulation

  • expression is reduced in a SigV mutant PubMed
  • Regulatory mechanism

    Additional information

    Biological materials


    Expression vector

    lacZ fusion

    GFP fusion

    two-hybrid system

    FLAG-tag construct


    Labs working on this gene/protein

  • Mark Strauch, Baltimore, USA homepage
  • References

    The Abh regulon

    Chumsakul O(1), Takahashi H, Oshima T, Hishimoto T, Kanaya S, Ogasawara N, Ishikawa S.

    Genome-wide binding profiles of the Bacillus subtilis transition state regulator AbrB and its homolog Abh reveals their interactive role in transcriptional regulation.

    Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Jan;39(2):414-28. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkq780. Epub 2010 Sep 3.

    Other original publications

    Luo Y, Helmann JD

    Analysis of the role of Bacillus subtilis σ(M) in β-lactam resistance reveals an essential role for c-di-AMP in peptidoglycan homeostasis

    Mol Microbiol. 2012 Feb;83(3):623-39. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2011.07953.x. Epub 2012 Jan 4. PubMed PMID: 22211522; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3306796.
    Guariglia-Oropeza V, Helmann JD

    Bacillus subtilis σ(V) confers lysozyme resistance by activation of two cell wall modification pathways, peptidoglycan O-acetylation and D-alanylation of teichoic acids

    J Bacteriol. 2011 Nov;193(22):6223-32. doi: 10.1128/JB.06023-11. Epub 2011 Sep 16. PubMed PMID: 21926231; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3209214.
    Murray EJ, Stanley-Wall NR

    The sensitivity of Bacillus subtilis to diverse antimicrobial compounds is influenced by Abh

    Arch Microbiol. 2010 Dec;192(12):1059-67. doi: 10.1007/s00203-010-0630-4. Epub 2010 Sep 16. PubMed PMID: 20844865.
    Murray EJ, Strauch MA, Stanley-Wall NR

    SigmaX is involved in controlling Bacillus subtilis biofilm architecture through the AbrB homologue Abh

    J Bacteriol. 2009 Nov;191(22):6822-32. doi: 10.1128/JB.00618-09. Epub 2009 Sep 18. PubMed PMID: 19767430; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2772499.
    Luo Y, Helmann JD

    Extracytoplasmic function sigma factors with overlapping promoter specificity regulate sublancin production in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2009 Aug;191(15):4951-8. doi: 10.1128/JB.00549-09. Epub 2009 May 22. PubMed PMID: 19465659; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2715738.
    Strauch MA, Bobay BG, Cavanagh J, Yao F, Wilson A, Le Breton Y

    Abh and AbrB control of Bacillus subtilis antimicrobial gene expression

    J Bacteriol. 2007 Nov;189(21):7720-32. Epub 2007 Aug 24. PubMed PMID: 17720793; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2168746.
    Bobay BG, Mueller GA, Thompson RJ, Murzin AG, Venters RA, Strauch MA, Cavanagh J

    NMR structure of AbhN and comparison with AbrBN: FIRST insights into the DNA binding promiscuity and specificity of AbrB-like transition state regulator proteins

    J Biol Chem. 2006 Jul 28;281(30):21399-409. Epub 2006 May 15. PubMed PMID: 16702211; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1761137.
    Serizawa M, Kodama K, Yamamoto H, Kobayashi K, Ogasawara N, Sekiguchi J

    Functional analysis of the YvrGHb two-component system of Bacillus subtilis: identification of the regulated genes by DNA microarray and northern blot analyses

    Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2005 Nov;69(11):2155-69. PubMed PMID: 16306698.
    Huang X, Helmann JD

    Identification of target promoters for the Bacillus subtilis sigma X factor using a consensus-directed search

    J Mol Biol. 1998 May 29;279(1):165-73. PubMed PMID: 9636707.
    LeDeaux JR, Grossman AD

    Isolation and characterization of kinC, a gene that encodes a sensor kinase homologous to the sporulation sensor kinases KinA and KinB in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 1995 Jan;177(1):166-75. PubMed PMID: 8002614; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC176569.
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