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Categories containing this gene/protein

utilization of specific carbon sources, transcription factors and their control, sporulation/ other

This gene is a member of the following regulons

AraR regulon

The AraR regulon


  • Coordinates on the chromosome (coding sequence): 3,485,604 -> 3,486,758
  • Phenotypes of a mutant

  • inactivation of araR reduces sporulation efficiency to 28% that of wild type cells PubMed
  • The protein

    Catalyzed reaction/ biological activity

    Protein family

  • GntR family: N-terminal DNA-binding domain, LacI family: C-terminal effector-binding domain
  • Paralogous protein(s)

    Kinetic information


  • N-terminal DNA-binding domain (GntR family)
  • C-terminal effector-binding domain (LacI family)
  • Modification


    Effectors of protein activity


  • 3TB6 (effector-binding domain) PubMed
  • Localization

  • cytoplasm (according to Swiss-Prot)
  • Interactions

    Additional information

    Expression and Regulation


  • araR PubMed
  • Sigma factor

  • SigA PubMed
  • Regulation

  • induced by arabinose (AraR) PubMed
  • Regulatory mechanism

  • AraR: transcription repression PubMed
  • Additional information

    Biological materials


    Expression vector

    lacZ fusion

    GFP fusion

    two-hybrid system

    FLAG-tag construct


    Labs working on this gene/protein


    Meeske AJ, Rodrigues CD, Brady J, Lim HC, Bernhardt TG, Rudner DZ

    High-Throughput Genetic Screens Identify a Large and Diverse Collection of New Sporulation Genes in Bacillus subtilis

    PLoS Biol. 2016 Jan 6;14(1):e1002341. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1002341. eCollection 2016 Jan. PubMed PMID: 26735940; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4703394.
    Jain D, Narayanan N, Nair DT

    Plasticity in Repressor-DNA Interactions Neutralizes Loss of Symmetry in Bipartite Operators

    J Biol Chem. 2016 Jan 15;291(3):1235-42. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M115.689695. Epub 2015 Oct 28. PubMed PMID: 26511320; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4714211.
    Suvorova IA, Korostelev YD, Gelfand MS

    GntR Family of Bacterial Transcription Factors and Their DNA Binding Motifs: Structure, Positioning and Co-Evolution

    PLoS One. 2015 Jul 7;10(7):e0132618. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0132618. eCollection 2015. PubMed PMID: 26151451; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4494728.
    Correia IL, Franco IS, de Sá-Nogueira I

    Towards novel amino acid-base contacts in gene regulatory proteins: AraR--a case study

    PLoS One. 2014 Nov 3;9(11):e111802. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0111802. eCollection 2014. PubMed PMID: 25364981; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4218819.
    Jain D, Nair DT

    Spacing between core recognition motifs determines relative orientation of AraR monomers on bipartite operators

    Nucleic Acids Res. 2013 Jan 7;41(1):639-47. doi: 10.1093/nar/gks962. Epub 2012 Oct 29. PubMed PMID: 23109551; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3592433.
    Procházková K, Cermáková K, Pachl P, Sieglová I, Fábry M, Otwinowski Z, Rezáčová P

    Structure of the effector-binding domain of the arabinose repressor AraR from Bacillus subtilis

    Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2012 Feb;68(Pt 2):176-85. doi: 10.1107/S090744491105414X. Epub 2012 Jan 17. PubMed PMID: 22281747; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3337009.
    Franco IS, Mota LJ, Soares CM, de Sá-Nogueira I

    Probing key DNA contacts in AraR-mediated transcriptional repression of the Bacillus subtilis arabinose regulon

    Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35(14):4755-66. Epub 2007 Jul 7. PubMed PMID: 17617643; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1950556.
    Franco IS, Mota LJ, Soares CM, de Sá-Nogueira I

    Functional domains of the Bacillus subtilis transcription factor AraR and identification of amino acids important for nucleoprotein complex assembly and effector binding

    J Bacteriol. 2006 Apr;188(8):3024-36. PubMed PMID: 16585763; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1446991.
    Raposo MP, Inácio JM, Mota LJ, de Sá-Nogueira I

    Transcriptional regulation of genes encoding arabinan-degrading enzymes in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2004 Mar;186(5):1287-96. PubMed PMID: 14973026; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC344415.
    Mota LJ, Sarmento LM, de Sá-Nogueira I

    Control of the arabinose regulon in Bacillus subtilis by AraR in vivo: crucial roles of operators, cooperativity, and DNA looping

    J Bacteriol. 2001 Jul;183(14):4190-201. PubMed PMID: 11418559; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC95308.
    Mota LJ, Tavares P, Sá-Nogueira I

    Mode of action of AraR, the key regulator of L-arabinose metabolism in Bacillus subtilis

    Mol Microbiol. 1999 Aug;33(3):476-89. PubMed PMID: 10417639.
    Sá-Nogueira I, Mota LJ

    Negative regulation of L-arabinose metabolism in Bacillus subtilis: characterization of the araR (araC) gene

    J Bacteriol. 1997 Mar;179(5):1598-608. PubMed PMID: 9045819; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC178872.
    Sá-Nogueira I, Paveia H, de Lencastre H

    Isolation of constitutive mutants for L-arabinose utilization in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 1988 Jun;170(6):2855-7. Erratum in: J Bacteriol 1988 Dec;170(12):5975. PubMed PMID: 3131313; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC211213.
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