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Categories containing this gene/protein

motility and chemotaxis

This gene is a member of the following regulons

SigD regulon

The CsrA regulon


  • Coordinates on the chromosome (coding sequence): 3,636,046 -> 3,636,270
  • The protein

    Catalyzed reaction/ biological activity

  • CsrA binds the hag mRNA to inhibit translation PubMed
  • Protein family

  • csrA family (according to Swiss-Prot)
  • Paralogous protein(s)

    Kinetic information




    Effectors of protein activity

  • CsrA is sequestered by interaction with FliW (the two proteins form a conserved module in many bacteria) PubMed
  • Structure

  • 1T3O
  • 5DMB (FliW-CsrA complex) PubMed
  • Localization


  • FliW-CsrA PubMed
  • Additional information

  • CsrA and FliW form a conserved module in many bacteria PubMed
  • Expression and Regulation


  • csrA PubMed
  • Sigma factor

  • SigD PubMed
  • Regulation

    Regulatory mechanism

    Additional information

    Biological materials


  • MGNA-A392 (csrA::erm), available at the NBRP B. subtilis, Japan
  • GP469 (spc), available in Stülke lab
  • Expression vector

  • pGP381 (N-terminal Strep-tag, purification from B. subtilis, for SPINE, in pGP380), available in Stülke lab
  • for expression, purification in E. coli with N-terminal His-tag, in pWH844: pGP383, available in Stülke lab
  • lacZ fusion

  • pGP461 (in pAC7), available in Stülke lab
  • GFP fusion

    two-hybrid system

    FLAG-tag construct


    Labs working on this gene/protein



    Mukherjee S, Kearns DB

    The structure and regulation of flagella in Bacillus subtilis

    Annu Rev Genet. 2014;48:319-40. doi: 10.1146/annurev-genet-120213-092406. Epub 2014 Sep 10. Review. PubMed PMID: 25251856; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4869327.
    Romeo T, Vakulskas CA, Babitzke P

    Post-transcriptional regulation on a global scale: form and function of Csr/Rsm systems

    Environ Microbiol. 2013 Feb;15(2):313-24. doi: 10.1111/j.1462-2920.2012.02794.x. Epub 2012 Jun 5. Review. PubMed PMID: 22672726; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3443267.
    Babitzke P, Baker CS, Romeo T

    Regulation of translation initiation by RNA binding proteins

    Annu Rev Microbiol. 2009;63:27-44. doi: 10.1146/annurev.micro.091208.073514. Review. PubMed PMID: 19385727; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4682898.

    Original Publications

    Altegoer F, Rensing SA, Bange G

    Structural basis for the CsrA-dependent modulation of translation initiation by an ancient regulatory protein

    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 Sep 6;113(36):10168-73. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1602425113. Epub 2016 Aug 22. PubMed PMID: 27551070; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5018767.
    Mukherjee S, Oshiro RT, Yakhnin H, Babitzke P, Kearns DB

    FliW antagonizes CsrA RNA binding by a noncompetitive allosteric mechanism

    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 Aug 30;113(35):9870-5. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1602455113. Epub 2016 Aug 11. PubMed PMID: 27516547; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5024615.
    Arrieta-Ortiz ML, Hafemeister C, Bate AR, Chu T, Greenfield A, Shuster B, Barry SN, Gallitto M, Liu B, Kacmarczyk T, Santoriello F, Chen J, Rodrigues CD, Sato T, Rudner DZ, Driks A, Bonneau R, Eichenberger P

    An experimentally supported model of the Bacillus subtilis global transcriptional regulatory network

    Mol Syst Biol. 2015 Nov 17;11(11):839. doi: 10.15252/msb.20156236. PubMed PMID: 26577401; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4670728.
    Mukherjee S, Babitzke P, Kearns DB

    FliW and FliS function independently to control cytoplasmic flagellin levels in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2013 Jan;195(2):297-306. doi: 10.1128/JB.01654-12. Epub 2012 Nov 9. PubMed PMID: 23144244; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3553831.
    Mukherjee S, Yakhnin H, Kysela D, Sokoloski J, Babitzke P, Kearns DB

    CsrA-FliW interaction governs flagellin homeostasis and a checkpoint on flagellar morphogenesis in Bacillus subtilis

    Mol Microbiol. 2011 Oct;82(2):447-61. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2011.07822.x. Epub 2011 Sep 19. PubMed PMID: 21895793; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3192257.
    Yakhnin H, Pandit P, Petty TJ, Baker CS, Romeo T, Babitzke P

    CsrA of Bacillus subtilis regulates translation initiation of the gene encoding the flagellin protein (hag) by blocking ribosome binding

    Mol Microbiol. 2007 Jun;64(6):1605-20. PubMed PMID: 17555441.
    Kulkarni PR, Cui X, Williams JW, Stevens AM, Kulkarni RV

    Prediction of CsrA-regulating small RNAs in bacteria and their experimental verification in Vibrio fischeri

    Nucleic Acids Res. 2006 Jul 5;34(11):3361-9. Print 2006. PubMed PMID: 16822857; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1488887.
    Soldo B, Lazarevic V, Mauël C, Karamata D

    Sequence of the 305 degrees-307 degrees region of the Bacillus subtilis chromosome

    Microbiology. 1996 Nov;142 ( Pt 11):3079-88. PubMed PMID: 8969505.
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