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Categories containing this gene/protein

proteolysis, transcription factors and their control, general stress proteins (controlled by SigB), heat shock proteins, phosphoproteins

This gene is a member of the following regulons

CtsR regulon, SigB regulon

The CtsR regulon


  • Coordinates on the chromosome (coding sequence): 101,449 -> 101,913
  • The protein

    Catalyzed reaction/ biological activity

    Protein family

  • ctsR family (according to Swiss-Prot)
  • Paralogous protein(s)

    Kinetic information



  • phosphorylated on Arg-55 (phosphorylation serves as tag for degradation by ClpC-ClpP) PubMed
  • phosphorylation of a tyrosine residue by McsB PubMed
  • recently, it was reported that CtsR is phosphorylated by McsB on Arg-62 rather than on a tyrosine residue PubMed
  • in addition, Arg-15 was reported to be a phosphorylation site PubMed
  • Cofactors

    Effectors of protein activity

  • CtsR is inactivated by heat, heat sensing requires Gly-64 PubMed
  • non-phosphorylated McsB targets CtsR for degradation PubMed
  • regulated proteolysis by ClpP/ClpC PubMed
  • Structure

  • 3H0D (complex with a 26bp DNA duplex, from Geobacillus stearothermophilus) PubMed
  • Localization


  • McsA-McsB-CtsR
  • CtsR-ClpP/ClpC (degradation of CtsR) PubMed
  • Additional information

    Expression and Regulation


  • ctsR-mcsA-mcsB-clpC-radA-disA PubMed
  • Sigma factor

  • SigA PubMed, SigB PubMed2
  • Regulation

  • induced by stress (SigB) PubMed
  • repressed at low temperatures (CtsR) PubMed
  • Regulatory mechanism

  • CtsR: transcription repression PubMed
  • Additional information

  • the mRNA is very stable (half-life > 15 min) [" target="_blank">PubMed
  • Biological materials


  • MGNA-B928 (yacG::erm), available at the NBRP B. subtilis, Japan
  • ctsR::aphA3 availbale in Ulf Gerth's lab
  • BKE00830 (ctsR::erm, available in the BGSC and in Jörg Stülke's lab)
  • Expression vector

  • for expression, purification in E. coli with N-terminal His-tag, pRSETA available in Ulf Gerth's lab
  • lacZ fusion

    GFP fusion

    two-hybrid system

  • B. pertussis adenylate cyclase-based bacterial two hybrid system (BACTH), available in Jörg Stülke's lab
  • FLAG-tag construct


  • available in Ulf Gerth's lab
  • Labs working on this gene/protein



    Schumann W(1).

    Regulation of bacterial heat shock stimulons.

    Cell Stress Chaperones. 2016 Nov;21(6):959-968. Epub 2016 Aug 12.

    Original Publications

    Trentini DB, Suskiewicz MJ, Heuck A, Kurzbauer R, Deszcz L, Mechtler K, Clausen T

    Arginine phosphorylation marks proteins for degradation by a Clp protease

    Nature. 2016 Nov 3;539(7627):48-53. doi: 10.1038/nature20122. Epub 2016 Oct 6. PubMed PMID: 27749819.
    Battesti A, Gottesman S

    Roles of adaptor proteins in regulation of bacterial proteolysis

    Curr Opin Microbiol. 2013 Apr;16(2):140-7. doi: 10.1016/j.mib.2013.01.002. Epub 2013 Jan 31. Review. PubMed PMID: 23375660; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3646950.
    Elsholz AK, Gerth U, Hecker M

    Regulation of CtsR activity in low GC, Gram+ bacteria

    Adv Microb Physiol. 2010;57:119-44. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-381045-8.00003-5. Review. PubMed PMID: 21078442.
    Schumann W

    The Bacillus subtilis heat shock stimulon

    Cell Stress Chaperones. 2003 Fall;8(3):207-17. Review. PubMed PMID: 14984053; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC514873.
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