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Categories containing this gene/protein

regulators of electron transport, transcription factors and their control

This gene is a member of the following regulons

Fnr regulon, NsrR regulon, ResD regulon

The Fnr regulon


  • Coordinates on the chromosome (coding sequence): 3,831,512 -> 3,832,228
  • The protein

    Catalyzed reaction/ biological activity

    Protein family

    Paralogous protein(s)

    Kinetic information




    Effectors of protein activity

  • contains an iron-sulfur cluster
  • Structure


  • cytoplasm (according to Swiss-Prot)
  • Interactions

    Additional information

    Expression and Regulation


  • narK-fnr PubMed
  • fnr PubMed
  • Sigma factor

  • narK: SigA PubMed
  • fnr: SigA PubMed
  • Regulation

  • narK: expressed under anaerobic conditions (Fnr) PubMed
  • fnr: expressed under anaerobic conditions (ResD) PubMed
  • induced by nitric oxide under anaerobic conditions (NsrR) PubMed
  • Regulatory mechanism

  • ResD: transcription activation PubMed
  • NsrR: transcription repression PubMed
  • Fnr: transcription activation PubMed
  • Additional information

    Biological materials


    Expression vector

    lacZ fusion

    GFP fusion

    two-hybrid system

    FLAG-tag construct


    Labs working on this gene/protein



    Härtig E(1), Jahn D.

    Regulation of the anaerobic metabolism in Bacillus subtilis.

    Adv Microb Physiol. 2012;61:195-216. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-394423-8.00005-6.DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-394423-8.00005-6 PMID: 23046954 [Indexed for MEDLINE]

    The Fnr regulon

    Reents H(1), Münch R, Dammeyer T, Jahn D, Härtig E.

    The Fnr regulon of Bacillus subtilis.

    J Bacteriol. 2006 Feb;188(3):1103-12.

    Other original publications

    Gruner I, Frädrich C, Böttger LH, Trautwein AX, Jahn D, Härtig E

    Aspartate 141 is the fourth ligand of the oxygen-sensing [4Fe-4S]2+ cluster of Bacillus subtilis transcriptional regulator Fnr

    J Biol Chem. 2011 Jan 21;286(3):2017-21. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M110.191940. Epub 2010 Nov 10. PubMed PMID: 21068385; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3023498.
    Nakano MM, Geng H, Nakano S, Kobayashi K

    The nitric oxide-responsive regulator NsrR controls ResDE-dependent gene expression

    J Bacteriol. 2006 Aug;188(16):5878-87. PubMed PMID: 16885456; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1540067.
    Nakano MM, Zhu Y, Lacelle M, Zhang X, Hulett FM

    Interaction of ResD with regulatory regions of anaerobically induced genes in Bacillus subtilis

    Mol Microbiol. 2000 Sep;37(5):1198-207. PubMed PMID: 10972836.
    Cruz Ramos H, Boursier L, Moszer I, Kunst F, Danchin A, Glaser P

    Anaerobic transcription activation in Bacillus subtilis: identification of distinct FNR-dependent and -independent regulatory mechanisms

    EMBO J. 1995 Dec 1;14(23):5984-94. PubMed PMID: 8846791; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC394718.
    Nakano MM, Zuber P, Glaser P, Danchin A, Hulett FM

    Two-component regulatory proteins ResD-ResE are required for transcriptional activation of fnr upon oxygen limitation in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 1996 Jul;178(13):3796-802. PubMed PMID: 8682783; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC232639.
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