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Categories containing this gene/protein

acquisition of iron, iron metabolism, transcription factors and their control, glutamate metabolism

This gene is a member of the following regulons

PerR regulon

The Fur regulon


  • Coordinates on the chromosome (coding sequence): 2,449,841 -> 2,450,290
  • Phenotypes of a mutant

  • no growth with glucose and ammonium as single sources of carbon and nitrogen, respectively (due to FsrA-mediated repression of the gltA-gltB operon) PubMed
  • poor frowth on lactate as single carbon source (due to overexpression of FsrA-mediated repression of the lutA-lutB-lutC operon, can be suppressed by inactivation of fsrA or fbpB) PubMed
  • transcription profile of a fur mutant strain: GEO PubMed
  • The protein

    Catalyzed reaction/ biological activity

    Protein family

  • Fur family
  • Paralogous protein(s)

  • PerR, Zur
  • Kinetic information




  • Fe(II)
  • Effectors of protein activity

  • DNA binding activity (repression) is triggered by binding of Fe(II) PubMed
  • Structure


  • cytoplasm (according to Swiss-Prot)
  • Interactions

    Additional information

    Expression and Regulation


  • fur PubMed
  • Sigma factor

  • SigA PubMed
  • Regulation

  • repressed in the absence of hydrogen peroxide (PerR) PubMed
  • Regulatory mechanism

  • PerR: transcription repression PubMed
  • Additional information

    Biological materials


  • MGNA-C426 (yqkL::erm), available at the NBRP B. subtilis, Japan
  • HB6543 (aphA3), available in the John Helmann lab; also available in the Stülke lab GP879 (fur::mls) and GP868 (fur::mls, perR::spc)
  • 1A910 ( fur::kan), PubMed, available at BGSC
  • Expression vector

    lacZ fusion

    GFP fusion

    two-hybrid system

    FLAG-tag construct


    Labs working on this gene/protein

  • John Helmann, Cornell University, USA Homepage
  • References


    Hirooka K

    Transcriptional response machineries of Bacillus subtilis conducive to plant growth promotion

    Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2014;78(9):1471-84. doi: 10.1080/09168451.2014.943689. PubMed PMID: 25209494.
    Helmann JD

    Specificity of metal sensing: iron and manganese homeostasis in Bacillus subtilis

    J Biol Chem. 2014 Oct 10;289(41):28112-20. doi: 10.1074/jbc.R114.587071. Epub 2014 Aug 26. Review. PubMed PMID: 25160631; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4192466.
    Moore CM, Helmann JD

    Metal ion homeostasis in Bacillus subtilis

    Curr Opin Microbiol. 2005 Apr;8(2):188-95. Review. PubMed PMID: 15802251.

    The Fur regulon

    Smaldone GT, Revelles O, Gaballa A, Sauer U, Antelmann H, Helmann JD

    A global investigation of the Bacillus subtilis iron-sparing response identifies major changes in metabolism

    J Bacteriol. 2012 May;194(10):2594-605. doi: 10.1128/JB.05990-11. Epub 2012 Mar 2. PubMed PMID: 22389480; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3347201.
    Gaballa A, Helmann JD

    Bacillus subtilis Fur represses one of two paralogous haem-degrading monooxygenases

    Microbiology. 2011 Nov;157(Pt 11):3221-31. doi: 10.1099/mic.0.053579-0. Epub 2011 Aug 26. PubMed PMID: 21873409; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3352277.
    Baichoo N, Helmann JD

    Recognition of DNA by Fur: a reinterpretation of the Fur box consensus sequence

    J Bacteriol. 2002 Nov;184(21):5826-32. PubMed PMID: 12374814; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC135393.
    Baichoo N, Wang T, Ye R, Helmann JD

    Global analysis of the Bacillus subtilis Fur regulon and the iron starvation stimulon

    Mol Microbiol. 2002 Sep;45(6):1613-29. PubMed PMID: 12354229.

    Other original publications

    Caux-Thang C, Parent A, Sethu R, Maïga A, Blondin G, Latour JM, Duarte V

    Single asparagine to arginine mutation allows PerR to switch from PerR box to fur box

    ACS Chem Biol. 2015 Mar 20;10(3):682-6. doi: 10.1021/cb500783g. Epub 2014 Dec 11. PubMed PMID: 25486128.
    Ma Z, Faulkner MJ, Helmann JD

    Origins of specificity and cross-talk in metal ion sensing by Bacillus subtilis Fur

    Mol Microbiol. 2012 Dec;86(5):1144-55. doi: 10.1111/mmi.12049. Epub 2012 Oct 12. PubMed PMID: 23057863; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3508374.
    Smaldone GT, Antelmann H, Gaballa A, Helmann JD

    The FsrA sRNA and FbpB protein mediate the iron-dependent induction of the Bacillus subtilis lutABC iron-sulfur-containing oxidases

    J Bacteriol. 2012 May;194(10):2586-93. doi: 10.1128/JB.05567-11. Epub 2012 Mar 16. PubMed PMID: 22427629; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3347220.
    Giedroc DP

    Hydrogen peroxide sensing in Bacillus subtilis: it is all about the (metallo)regulator

    Mol Microbiol. 2009 Jul;73(1):1-4. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2009.06752.x. Epub 2009 Jun 8. PubMed PMID: 19508286; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2765198.
    Gaballa A, Antelmann H, Aguilar C, Khakh SK, Song KB, Smaldone GT, Helmann JD

    The Bacillus subtilis iron-sparing response is mediated by a Fur-regulated small RNA and three small, basic proteins

    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Aug 19;105(33):11927-32. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0711752105. Epub 2008 Aug 12. PubMed PMID: 18697947; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2575260.
    Hochgräfe F, Wolf C, Fuchs S, Liebeke M, Lalk M, Engelmann S, Hecker M

    Nitric oxide stress induces different responses but mediates comparable protein thiol protection in Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus

    J Bacteriol. 2008 Jul;190(14):4997-5008. doi: 10.1128/JB.01846-07. Epub 2008 May 16. PubMed PMID: 18487332; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2447014.
    Gaballa A, Helmann JD

    Substrate induction of siderophore transport in Bacillus subtilis mediated by a novel one-component regulator

    Mol Microbiol. 2007 Oct;66(1):164-73. Epub 2007 Aug 28. PubMed PMID: 17725565; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3022416.
    Miethke M, Westers H, Blom EJ, Kuipers OP, Marahiel MA

    Iron starvation triggers the stringent response and induces amino acid biosynthesis for bacillibactin production in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2006 Dec;188(24):8655-7. Epub 2006 Sep 29. PubMed PMID: 17012385; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1698241.
    Ollinger J, Song KB, Antelmann H, Hecker M, Helmann JD

    Role of the Fur regulon in iron transport in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2006 May;188(10):3664-73. PubMed PMID: 16672620; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1482855.
    Fuangthong M, Helmann JD

    Recognition of DNA by three ferric uptake regulator (Fur) homologs in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2003 Nov;185(21):6348-57. PubMed PMID: 14563870; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC219410.
    Guedon E, Moore CM, Que Q, Wang T, Ye RW, Helmann JD

    The global transcriptional response of Bacillus subtilis to manganese involves the MntR, Fur, TnrA and sigmaB regulons

    Mol Microbiol. 2003 Sep;49(6):1477-91. PubMed PMID: 12950915.
    Cao M, Wang T, Ye R, Helmann JD

    Antibiotics that inhibit cell wall biosynthesis induce expression of the Bacillus subtilis sigma(W) and sigma(M) regulons

    Mol Microbiol. 2002 Sep;45(5):1267-76. PubMed PMID: 12207695.
    Fuangthong M, Herbig AF, Bsat N, Helmann JD

    Regulation of the Bacillus subtilis fur and perR genes by PerR: not all members of the PerR regulon are peroxide inducible

    J Bacteriol. 2002 Jun;184(12):3276-86. PubMed PMID: 12029044; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC135084.
    Hoffmann T, Schütz A, Brosius M, Völker A, Völker U, Bremer E

    High-salinity-induced iron limitation in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2002 Feb;184(3):718-27. PubMed PMID: 11790741; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC139516.
    Bsat N, Helmann JD

    Interaction of Bacillus subtilis Fur (ferric uptake repressor) with the dhb operator in vitro and in vivo

    J Bacteriol. 1999 Jul;181(14):4299-307. PubMed PMID: 10400588; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC93932.
    Bsat N, Herbig A, Casillas-Martinez L, Setlow P, Helmann JD

    Bacillus subtilis contains multiple Fur homologues: identification of the iron uptake (Fur) and peroxide regulon (PerR) repressors

    Mol Microbiol. 1998 Jul;29(1):189-98. PubMed PMID: 9701813.
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