SubtiBank SubtiBank

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Categories containing this gene/protein

transcription factors and their control, germination

This gene is a member of the following regulons

CitB regulon, SigK regulon, SpoIIID regulon

The GerE regulon

The GerE regulon


  • Coordinates on the chromosome (coding sequence): 2,904,727 -> 2,904,951
  • Phenotypes of a mutant

  • unable to germinate efficiently PubMed
  • The protein

    Catalyzed reaction/ biological activity

    Protein family

  • LuxR-FixJ family of transcription regulators
  • Paralogous protein(s)

    Kinetic information




    Effectors of protein activity


  • 1FSE
  • Localization


    Additional information

    Expression and Regulation


  • gerE PubMed
  • Sigma factor

  • SigK PubMed
  • Regulation

  • expressed late during sporulation in the mother cell (SigK, SpoIIID) PubMed
  • expression is subject to variation between individual cells PubMed
  • Regulatory mechanism

  • SpoIIID: transcription activation PubMed
  • CitB: binding of the mRNA, results in mRNA accumulation PubMed
  • Additional information

    Biological materials


    Expression vector

    lacZ fusion

    GFP fusion

    two-hybrid system

    FLAG-tag construct


    Labs working on this gene/protein

  • Arthur Aronson, Purdue University, West Lafayette, USA homepage
  • Charles Moran, Emory University, NC, USA homepage
  • References

    Sturm A, Dworkin J

    Phenotypic Diversity as a Mechanism to Exit Cellular Dormancy

    Curr Biol. 2015 Aug 31;25(17):2272-7. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2015.07.018. Epub 2015 Aug 13. PubMed PMID: 26279233; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4778719.
    Plomp M, Carroll AM, Setlow P, Malkin AJ

    Architecture and assembly of the Bacillus subtilis spore coat

    PLoS One. 2014 Sep 26;9(9):e108560. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0108560. eCollection 2014. PubMed PMID: 25259857; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4178626.
    Moeller R, Schuerger AC, Reitz G, Nicholson WL

    Protective role of spore structural components in determining Bacillus subtilis spore resistance to simulated mars surface conditions

    Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012 Dec;78(24):8849-53. doi: 10.1128/AEM.02527-12. Epub 2012 Oct 12. PubMed PMID: 23064347; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3502913.
    Kodama T, Matsubayashi T, Yanagihara T, Komoto H, Ara K, Ozaki K, Kuwana R, Imamura D, Takamatsu H, Watabe K, Sekiguchi J

    A novel small protein of Bacillus subtilis involved in spore germination and spore coat assembly

    Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2011;75(6):1119-28. Epub 2011 Jun 13. PubMed PMID: 21670523.
    Cangiano G, Mazzone A, Baccigalupi L, Isticato R, Eichenberger P, De Felice M, Ricca E

    Direct and indirect control of late sporulation genes by GerR of Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2010 Jul;192(13):3406-13. doi: 10.1128/JB.00329-10. Epub 2010 Apr 30. PubMed PMID: 20435725; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2897654.
    Wang L, Perpich J, Driks A, Kroos L

    One perturbation of the mother cell gene regulatory network suppresses the effects of another during sporulation of Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2007 Dec;189(23):8467-73. Epub 2007 Sep 21. PubMed PMID: 17890309; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2168946.
    Serio AW, Pechter KB, Sonenshein AL

    Bacillus subtilis aconitase is required for efficient late-sporulation gene expression

    J Bacteriol. 2006 Sep;188(17):6396-405. Erratum in: J Bacteriol. 2007 Jul;189(14):5403. PubMed PMID: 16923907; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1595401.
    Baccigalupi L, Castaldo G, Cangiano G, Isticato R, Marasco R, De Felice M, Ricca E

    GerE-independent expression of cotH leads to CotC accumulation in the mother cell compartment during Bacillus subtilis sporulation

    Microbiology. 2004 Oct;150(Pt 10):3441-9. PubMed PMID: 15470121.
    Eichenberger P, Fujita M, Jensen ST, Conlon EM, Rudner DZ, Wang ST, Ferguson C, Haga K, Sato T, Liu JS, Losick R

    The program of gene transcription for a single differentiating cell type during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis

    PLoS Biol. 2004 Oct;2(10):e328. Epub 2004 Sep 21. PubMed PMID: 15383836; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC517825.
    Kuwana R, Yamamura S, Ikejiri H, Kobayashi K, Ogasawara N, Asai K, Sadaie Y, Takamatsu H, Watabe K

    Bacillus subtilis spoVIF (yjcC) gene, involved in coat assembly and spore resistance

    Microbiology. 2003 Oct;149(Pt 10):3011-21. PubMed PMID: 14523132.
    Crater DL, Wade KH, Resnekov O, Ichikawa HT, Kroos L, Brannigan JA, Moran CP Jr

    A mutation in GerE that affects cotC promoter activation in Bacillus subtilis

    Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002 Jun 7;1576(1-2):30-8. PubMed PMID: 12031481.
    Crater DL, Moran CP Jr

    Two regions of GerE required for promoter activation in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2002 Jan;184(1):241-9. PubMed PMID: 11741866; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC134761.
    Crater DL, Moran CP Jr

    Identification of a DNA binding region in GerE from Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2001 Jul;183(14):4183-9. PubMed PMID: 11418558; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC95307.
    Crater DL, Moran CP Jr

    Identification of a DNA binding region in GerE from Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2001 Jul;183(14):4183-9. PubMed PMID: 11418558; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC95307.
    Ducros VM, Lewis RJ, Verma CS, Dodson EJ, Leonard G, Turkenburg JP, Murshudov GN, Wilkinson AJ, Brannigan JA

    Crystal structure of GerE, the ultimate transcriptional regulator of spore formation in Bacillus subtilis

    J Mol Biol. 2001 Mar 2;306(4):759-71. PubMed PMID: 11243786.
    Reischl S, Thake S, Homuth G, Schumann W

    Transcriptional analysis of three Bacillus subtilis genes coding for proteins with the alpha-crystallin domain characteristic of small heat shock proteins

    FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2001 Jan 1;194(1):99-103. PubMed PMID: 11150673.
    Wade KH, Schyns G, Opdyke JA, Moran CP Jr

    A region of sigmaK involved in promoter activation by GerE in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 1999 Jul;181(14):4365-73. PubMed PMID: 10400595; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC93939.
    Bagyan I, Setlow B, Setlow P

    New small, acid-soluble proteins unique to spores of Bacillus subtilis: identification of the coding genes and regulation and function of two of these genes

    J Bacteriol. 1998 Dec;180(24):6704-12. PubMed PMID: 9852018; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC107777.
    Halberg R, Oke V, Kroos L

    Effects of Bacillus subtilis sporulation regulatory protein SpoIIID on transcription by sigma K RNA polymerase in vivo and in vitro

    J Bacteriol. 1995 Apr;177(7):1888-91. PubMed PMID: 7896717; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC176822.
    Roels S, Losick R

    Adjacent and divergently oriented operons under the control of the sporulation regulatory protein GerE in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 1995 Nov;177(21):6263-75. PubMed PMID: 7592393; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC177468.
    Webb CD, Decatur A, Teleman A, Losick R

    Use of green fluorescent protein for visualization of cell-specific gene expression and subcellular protein localization during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 1995 Oct;177(20):5906-11. PubMed PMID: 7592342; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC177417.
    Zhang J, Ichikawa H, Halberg R, Kroos L, Aronson AI

    Regulation of the transcription of a cluster of Bacillus subtilis spore coat genes

    J Mol Biol. 1994 Jul 29;240(5):405-15. PubMed PMID: 7519271.
    Moir A

    Germination properties of a spore coat-defective mutant of Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 1981 Jun;146(3):1106-16. PubMed PMID: 6787012; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC216967.
    Zheng LB, Donovan WP, Fitz-James PC, Losick R

    Gene encoding a morphogenic protein required in the assembly of the outer coat of the Bacillus subtilis endospore

    Genes Dev. 1988 Aug;2(8):1047-54. PubMed PMID: 3139490.
    Sandman K, Kroos L, Cutting S, Youngman P, Losick R

    Identification of the promoter for a spore coat protein gene in Bacillus subtilis and studies on the regulation of its induction at a late stage of sporulation

    J Mol Biol. 1988 Apr 5;200(3):461-73. PubMed PMID: 3135411.
    Cutting S, Mandelstam J

    The nucleotide sequence and the transcription during sporulation of the gerE gene of Bacillus subtilis

    J Gen Microbiol. 1986 Nov;132(11):3013-24. PubMed PMID: 3114423.
    Cutting S, Panzer S, Losick R

    Regulatory studies on the promoter for a gene governing synthesis and assembly of the spore coat in Bacillus subtilis

    J Mol Biol. 1989 May 20;207(2):393-404. PubMed PMID: 2474075.
    Zheng LB, Losick R

    Cascade regulation of spore coat gene expression in Bacillus subtilis

    J Mol Biol. 1990 Apr 20;212(4):645-60. PubMed PMID: 1691789.
    Zheng L, Halberg R, Roels S, Ichikawa H, Kroos L, Losick R

    Sporulation regulatory protein GerE from Bacillus subtilis binds to and can activate or repress transcription from promoters for mother-cell-specific genes

    J Mol Biol. 1992 Aug 20;226(4):1037-50. PubMed PMID: 1518043.
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