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Categories containing this gene/protein

biosynthesis/ acquisition of amino acids, glutamate metabolism, transcription factors and their control

This gene is a member of the following regulons

GlnR regulon, TnrA regulon

The GlnR regulon


  • Coordinates on the chromosome (coding sequence): 1,877,959 -> 1,878,366
  • The protein

    Catalyzed reaction/ biological activity

    Protein family

  • MerR family
  • Paralogous protein(s)

    Kinetic information




  • feedback-inhibited GlnA PubMed
  • Effectors of protein activity

  • activity is enhanced upon interaction of the C-terminal domain with GlnA PubMed
  • Structure

  • 4R4E (the GlnR-DNA complex) PubMed
  • Localization


  • GlnR-GlnA, with feedback-inhibited GlnA, this results in DNA binding PubMed
  • Additional information

    Expression and Regulation


  • glnR-glnA PubMed
  • Sigma factor

  • SigA PubMed
  • Regulation

  • expressed in the absence of glutamine (GlnR) PubMed
  • repressed in the absence of good nitrogen sources (glutamine or ammonium) (TnrA) PubMed
  • Regulatory mechanism

  • GlnR-GlnA complex: transcription repression PubMed
  • TnrA: transcription repression PubMed
  • Additional information

  • the mRNA is cleaved by RNase III PubMed
  • Biological materials


  • BP148 (del(glnR-glnA)::cat), available in Fabian Commichau's lab
  • Expression vector

    lacZ fusion

  • pGP189 (in pAC7), available in Jörg Stülke's lab
  • GFP fusion

    two-hybrid system

    FLAG-tag construct


    Labs working on this gene/protein

  • Susan Fisher, Boston, USA homepage
  • References


    Gunka K(1), Commichau FM.

    Control of glutamate homeostasis in Bacillus subtilis: a complex interplay between ammonium assimilation, glutamate biosynthesis and degradation.

    Mol Microbiol. 2012 Jul;85(2):213-24. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2012.08105.x. Epub 2012 Jun 5.DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2012.08105.x PMID: 22625175 [Indexed for MEDLINE]

    Original publications

    DiChiara JM, Liu B, Figaro S, Condon C, Bechhofer DH

    Mapping of internal monophosphate 5' ends of Bacillus subtilis messenger RNAs and ribosomal RNAs in wild-type and ribonuclease-mutant strains

    Nucleic Acids Res. 2016 Apr 20;44(7):3373-89. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkw073. Epub 2016 Feb 15. PubMed PMID: 26883633; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4838370.
    Mirouze N, Bidnenko E, Noirot P, Auger S

    Genome-wide mapping of TnrA-binding sites provides new insights into the TnrA regulon in Bacillus subtilis

    Microbiologyopen. 2015 Jun;4(3):423-35. doi: 10.1002/mbo3.249. Epub 2015 Mar 8. PubMed PMID: 25755103; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4475385.
    Schumacher MA, Chinnam NB, Cuthbert B, Tonthat NK, Whitfill T

    Structures of regulatory machinery reveal novel molecular mechanisms controlling B

    subtilis nitrogen homeostasis. Genes Dev. 2015 Feb 15;29(4):451-64. doi: 10.1101/gad.254714.114. PubMed PMID: 25691471; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4335299.
    Fedorova K, Kayumov A, Woyda K, Ilinskaja O, Forchhammer K

    Transcription factor TnrA inhibits the biosynthetic activity of glutamine synthetase in Bacillus subtilis

    FEBS Lett. 2013 May 2;587(9):1293-8. doi: 10.1016/j.febslet.2013.03.015. Epub 2013 Mar 25. PubMed PMID: 23535029.
    Fisher SH, Wray LV Jr

    Novel trans-Acting Bacillus subtilis glnA mutations that derepress glnRA expression

    J Bacteriol. 2009 Apr;191(8):2485-92. doi: 10.1128/JB.01734-08. Epub 2009 Feb 20. PubMed PMID: 19233925; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2668423.
    Wray LV Jr, Fisher SH

    Bacillus subtilis GlnR contains an autoinhibitory C-terminal domain required for the interaction with glutamine synthetase

    Mol Microbiol. 2008 Apr;68(2):277-85. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2008.06162.x. Epub 2008 Mar 7. PubMed PMID: 18331450.
    Fisher SH, Wray LV Jr

    Bacillus subtilis glutamine synthetase regulates its own synthesis by acting as a chaperone to stabilize GlnR-DNA complexes

    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Jan 22;105(3):1014-9. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0709949105. Epub 2008 Jan 14. PubMed PMID: 18195355; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2242682.
    Zalieckas JM, Wray LV Jr, Fisher SH

    Cross-regulation of the Bacillus subtilis glnRA and tnrA genes provides evidence for DNA binding site discrimination by GlnR and TnrA

    J Bacteriol. 2006 Apr;188(7):2578-85. PubMed PMID: 16547045; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1428417.
    Brandenburg JL, Wray LV Jr, Beier L, Jarmer H, Saxild HH, Fisher SH

    Roles of PucR, GlnR, and TnrA in regulating expression of the Bacillus subtilis ure P3 promoter

    J Bacteriol. 2002 Nov;184(21):6060-4. PubMed PMID: 12374841; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC135401.
    Wray LV Jr, Ferson AE, Fisher SH

    Expression of the Bacillus subtilis ureABC operon is controlled by multiple regulatory factors including CodY, GlnR, TnrA, and Spo0H

    J Bacteriol. 1997 Sep;179(17):5494-501. PubMed PMID: 9287005; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC179421.
    Wray LV Jr, Ferson AE, Rohrer K, Fisher SH

    TnrA, a transcription factor required for global nitrogen regulation in Bacillus subtilis

    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Aug 20;93(17):8841-5. PubMed PMID: 8799114; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC38555.
    Brown SW, Sonenshein AL

    Autogenous regulation of the Bacillus subtilis glnRA operon

    J Bacteriol. 1996 Apr;178(8):2450-4. PubMed PMID: 8636055; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC177962.
    Strauch MA, Aronson AI, Brown SW, Schreier HJ, Sonenhein AL

    Sequence of the Bacillus subtilis glutamine synthetase gene region

    Gene. 1988 Nov 30;71(2):257-65. PubMed PMID: 2906311.
    Schreier HJ, Brown SW, Hirschi KD, Nomellini JF, Sonenshein AL

    Regulation of Bacillus subtilis glutamine synthetase gene expression by the product of the glnR gene

    J Mol Biol. 1989 Nov 5;210(1):51-63. Erratum in: J Mol Biol 1992 Jul 20;226(2):571. PubMed PMID: 2573733.
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