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Categories containing this gene/protein

biosynthesis/ acquisition of amino acids, glutamate metabolism, transcription factors and their control

This gene is a member of the following regulons

The GltC regulon


  • Coordinates on the chromosome (coding sequence): 2,014,779 -> 2,015,681
  • Phenotypes of a mutant

  • gltC mutants are auxotrophic for glutamate.
  • The protein

    Catalyzed reaction/ biological activity

  • transcription activation of the gltA-gltB operon PubMed
  • Protein family

  • LysR family PubMed
  • Paralogous protein(s)

  • none, but there are 19 members of the LysR family in B. subtilis
  • Kinetic information


  • DNA-binding helix-turn-helix motif: AA 18 ... 37
  • Modification


    Effectors of protein activity

  • 2-oxoglutarate stimulates transcription activation, glutamate inhibits transcription activation PubMed
  • Structure



  • active as dimer
  • GltC-RocG, This interaction takes place in the presence of glutamate. It prevents the transcription activation of the gltA-gltB operon. Note that RocG expression is strongly regulated by carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively PubMed
  • GltC-GudB PubMed
  • Additional information

    Expression and Regulation


  • gltC (according to DBTBS)
  • Sigma factor

  • SigA PubMed
  • Regulation

  • autoregulation by GltC PubMed
  • Regulatory mechanism

  • autorepression PubMed
  • Additional information

    Biological materials


  • GP344 (erm), (available in Jörg Stülke's lab)
  • GP738 (spc), (available in Jörg Stülke's lab)
  • GP1904 (gltC::aphA3), (available in Jörg Stülke's lab)
  • Expression vector

  • for expression, purification in E. coli with N-terminal His-tag, in pWH844: pGP903, available in Jörg Stülke's lab
  • for expression, purification in E. coli with C-terminal Strep-tag, in pET3C: pGP951, available in Jörg Stülke's lab
  • lacZ fusion

    GFP fusion

    two-hybrid system

  • B. pertussis adenylate cyclase-based bacterial two hybrid system (BACTH), available in Jörg Stülke's lab
  • FLAG-tag construct


  • available in Jörg Stülke's lab
  • Labs working on this gene/protein

  • Linc Sonenshein, Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA Homepage
  • Jörg Stülke, University of Göttingen, Germany
  • Homepage
  • Fabian Commichau University of Göttingen, Germany
  • Homepage
  • References


    Gunka K, Commichau FM

    Control of glutamate homeostasis in Bacillus subtilis: a complex interplay between ammonium assimilation, glutamate biosynthesis and degradation

    Mol Microbiol. 2012 Jul;85(2):213-24. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2012.08105.x. Epub 2012 Jun 5. Review. PubMed PMID: 22625175.
    Brantl S, Licht A

    Characterisation of Bacillus subtilis transcriptional regulators involved in metabolic processes

    Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2010 Jun;11(4):274-91. Review. PubMed PMID: 20408793.

    Original Publications

    Stannek L, Thiele MJ, Ischebeck T, Gunka K, Hammer E, Völker U, Commichau FM

    Evidence for synergistic control of glutamate biosynthesis by glutamate dehydrogenases and glutamate in Bacillus subtilis

    Environ Microbiol. 2015 Sep;17(9):3379-90. doi: 10.1111/1462-2920.12813. Epub 2015 Mar 27. PubMed PMID: 25711804.
    Gunka K, Newman JA, Commichau FM, Herzberg C, Rodrigues C, Hewitt L, Lewis RJ, Stülke J

    Functional dissection of a trigger enzyme: mutations of the bacillus subtilis glutamate dehydrogenase RocG that affect differentially its catalytic activity and regulatory properties

    J Mol Biol. 2010 Jul 23;400(4):815-27. doi: 10.1016/j.jmb.2010.05.055. Epub 2010 May 31. PubMed PMID: 20630473.
    Commichau FM, Herzberg C, Tripal P, Valerius O, Stülke J

    A regulatory protein-protein interaction governs glutamate biosynthesis in Bacillus subtilis: the glutamate dehydrogenase RocG moonlights in controlling the transcription factor GltC

    Mol Microbiol. 2007 Aug;65(3):642-54. Epub 2007 Jul 3. PubMed PMID: 17608797.
    Commichau FM, Wacker I, Schleider J, Blencke HM, Reif I, Tripal P, Stülke J

    Characterization of Bacillus subtilis mutants with carbon source-independent glutamate biosynthesis

    J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2007;12(1-2):106-13. PubMed PMID: 17183217.
    Picossi S, Belitsky BR, Sonenshein AL

    Molecular mechanism of the regulation of Bacillus subtilis gltAB expression by GltC

    J Mol Biol. 2007 Feb 2;365(5):1298-313. Epub 2006 Nov 3. PubMed PMID: 17134717; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1794623.
    Belitsky BR, Sonenshein AL

    Modulation of activity of Bacillus subtilis regulatory proteins GltC and TnrA by glutamate dehydrogenase

    J Bacteriol. 2004 Jun;186(11):3399-407. PubMed PMID: 15150225; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC415766.
    Wacker I, Ludwig H, Reif I, Blencke HM, Detsch C, Stülke J

    The regulatory link between carbon and nitrogen metabolism in Bacillus subtilis: regulation of the gltAB operon by the catabolite control protein CcpA

    Microbiology. 2003 Oct;149(Pt 10):3001-9. PubMed PMID: 14523131.
    Belitsky BR, Sonenshein AL

    Mutations in GltC that increase Bacillus subtilis gltA expression

    J Bacteriol. 1995 Oct;177(19):5696-700. PubMed PMID: 7559360; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC177382.
    Bohannon DE, Sonenshein AL

    Positive regulation of glutamate biosynthesis in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 1989 Sep;171(9):4718-27. PubMed PMID: 2548995; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC210272.
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