SubtiBank SubtiBank

Description: tryptophan operon RNA-binding attenuation protein (TRAP), controls the RNA switch in front of genes involved in biosynthesis and acquisition of tryptophan

Name: mtrB
Locus: BSU22770BsubCyc
pI: 7.0
MW: 8.0 kDa
Protein length: 75 aaBLASTSequence
Gene length: 225 bpBLASTSequenceSequence + Flanks
Function: regulation of tryptophan biosynthesis
(and translation) attenuation in the trp operon;
repression of the folate operon
Product: tryptophan operon RNA-binding attenuation protein (TRAP)
Essential: no
E.C. number:
Synonyms:
Databases: SubtiListKEGGUniProtExpression data browser

Categories containing this gene/protein


biosynthesis/ acquisition of amino acids, transcription factors and their control, RNA binding regulators

This gene is a member of the following regulons


The MtrB regulon


Gene


  • Coordinates on the chromosome (coding sequence): 2,384,534 -> 2,384,761
  • The protein


    Catalyzed reaction/ biological activity

    Protein family

  • prpD family (according to Swiss-Prot)
  • Paralogous protein(s)

    Kinetic information

    Domains

    Modification

    Cofactors

    Effectors of protein activity

  • binding of tryptophan results RNA binding and thus in transcription termination
  • Structure

  • 3AQD, 1WAP (complex with L-tryptophan), 2ZP9 (complex with RtpA)
  • Localization

    Interactions

  • forms 11-mers
  • TRAP11-RtpA3 PubMed
  • Additional information

    Expression and Regulation


    Operon

  • folE-mtrB PubMed
  • Sigma factor

  • SigA PubMed
  • Regulation

    Regulatory mechanism

    Additional information

    Biological materials


    Mutant

    Expression vector

    lacZ fusion

    GFP fusion

    two-hybrid system

    FLAG-tag construct

    Antibody

    Labs working on this gene/protein


    References


    Reviews

    Babitzke P, Baker CS, Romeo T

    Regulation of translation initiation by RNA binding proteins

    Annu Rev Microbiol. 2009;63:27-44. doi: 10.1146/annurev.micro.091208.073514. Review. PubMed PMID: 19385727; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4682898.
    Gollnick P, Babitzke P, Antson A, Yanofsky C

    Complexity in regulation of tryptophan biosynthesis in Bacillus subtilis

    Annu Rev Genet. 2005;39:47-68. Review. PubMed PMID: 16285852.
    Babitzke P

    Regulation of transcription attenuation and translation initiation by allosteric control of an RNA-binding protein: the Bacillus subtilis TRAP protein

    Curr Opin Microbiol. 2004 Apr;7(2):132-9. Review. PubMed PMID: 15063849.

    Original Publications

    McAdams NM, Patterson A, Gollnick P

    Identification of a Residue (Glu60) in TRAP Required for Inducing Efficient Transcription Termination at the trp Attenuator Independent of Binding Tryptophan and RNA

    J Bacteriol. 2017 Feb 28;199(6). pii: e00710-16. doi: 10.1128/JB.00710-16. PubMed PMID: 28069823; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5331668.
    Bjerre K, Cantor MD, Nørgaard JV, Poulsen HD, Blaabjerg K, Canibe N, Jensen BB, Stuer-Lauridsen B, Nielsen B, Derkx PM

    Development of Bacillus subtilis mutants to produce tryptophan in pigs

    Biotechnol Lett. 2017 Feb;39(2):289-295. doi: 10.1007/s10529-016-2245-6. PubMed PMID: 27812824; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5247549.
    McAdams NM, Gollnick P

    Characterization of TRAP-mediated regulation of the B

    subtilis trp operon using in vitro transcription and transcriptional reporter fusions in vivo. Methods Mol Biol. 2015;1259:333-47. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-2214-7_20. PubMed PMID: 25579595.
    Sharma S, Gollnick P

    Modulating TRAP-mediated transcription termination by AT during transcription of the leader region of the Bacillus subtilis trp operon

    Nucleic Acids Res. 2014 May;42(9):5543-55. doi: 10.1093/nar/gku211. PubMed PMID: 24682818; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4027176.
    Yu AC, Yim AK, Mat WK, Tong AH, Lok S, Xue H, Tsui SK, Wong JT, Chan TF

    Mutations enabling displacement of tryptophan by 4-fluorotryptophan as a canonical amino acid of the genetic code

    Genome Biol Evol. 2014 Mar;6(3):629-41. doi: 10.1093/gbe/evu044. PubMed PMID: 24572018; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3971595.
    McAdams NM, Gollnick P

    The Bacillus subtilis TRAP protein can induce transcription termination in the leader region of the tryptophan biosynthetic (trp) operon independent of the trp attenuator RNA

    PLoS One. 2014 Feb 4;9(2):e88097. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0088097. PubMed PMID: 24505391; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3913778.
    Bayfield OW, Chen CS, Patterson AR, Luan W, Smits C, Gollnick P, Antson AA

    Trp RNA-binding attenuation protein: modifying symmetry and stability of a circular oligomer

    PLoS One. 2012;7(9):e44309. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0044309. PubMed PMID: 22970197; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3435397.
    Chen CS, Smits C, Dodson GG, Shevtsov MB, Merlino N, Gollnick P, Antson AA

    How to change the oligomeric state of a circular protein assembly: switch from 11-subunit to 12-subunit TRAP suggests a general mechanism

    PLoS One. 2011;6(10):e25296. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0025296. PubMed PMID: 21984911; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3184956.
    Potter KD, Merlino NM, Jacobs T, Gollnick P

    TRAP binding to the Bacillus subtilis trp leader region RNA causes efficient transcription termination at a weak intrinsic terminator

    Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Mar;39(6):2092-102. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkq965. PubMed PMID: 21097886; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3064811.
    McGraw AP, Mokdad A, Major F, Bevilacqua PC, Babitzke P

    Molecular basis of TRAP-5'SL RNA interaction in the Bacillus subtilis trp operon transcription attenuation mechanism

    RNA. 2009 Jan;15(1):55-66. doi: 10.1261/rna.1314409. PubMed PMID: 19033375; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2612762.
    Chen Y, Gollnick P

    Alanine scanning mutagenesis of anti-TRAP (AT) reveals residues involved in binding to TRAP

    J Mol Biol. 2008 Apr 11;377(5):1529-43. doi: 10.1016/j.jmb.2008.02.015. PubMed PMID: 18334255; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2330097.
    McGraw AP, Bevilacqua PC, Babitzke P

    TRAP-5' stem loop interaction increases the efficiency of transcription termination in the Bacillus subtilis trpEDCFBA operon leader region

    RNA. 2007 Nov;13(11):2020-33. PubMed PMID: 17881743; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2040092.
    Barbolina MV, Kristoforov R, Manfredo A, Chen Y, Gollnick P

    The rate of TRAP binding to RNA is crucial for transcription attenuation control of the B

    subtilis trp operon. J Mol Biol. 2007 Jul 27;370(5):925-38. PubMed PMID: 17555767; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2034321.
    Yakhnin H, Yakhnin AV, Babitzke P

    Translation control of trpG from transcripts originating from the folate operon promoter of Bacillus subtilis is influenced by translation-mediated displacement of bound TRAP, while translation control of transcripts originating from a newly identified trpG promoter is not

    J Bacteriol. 2007 Feb;189(3):872-9. PubMed PMID: 17114263; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1797321.
    Yakhnin AV, Yakhnin H, Babitzke P

    RNA polymerase pausing regulates translation initiation by providing additional time for TRAP-RNA interaction

    Mol Cell. 2006 Nov 17;24(4):547-57. PubMed PMID: 17114058.
    Yakhnin H, Yakhnin AV, Babitzke P

    The trp RNA-binding attenuation protein (TRAP) of Bacillus subtilis regulates translation initiation of ycbK, a gene encoding a putative efflux protein, by blocking ribosome binding

    Mol Microbiol. 2006 Sep;61(5):1252-66. PubMed PMID: 16879415.
    McElroy CA, Manfredo A, Gollnick P, Foster MP

    Thermodynamics of tryptophan-mediated activation of the trp RNA-binding attenuation protein

    Biochemistry. 2006 Jun 27;45(25):7844-53. PubMed PMID: 16784236; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2517159.
    Payal V, Gollnick P

    Substitutions of Thr30 provide mechanistic insight into tryptophan-mediated activation of TRAP binding to RNA

    Nucleic Acids Res. 2006 May 31;34(10):2933-42. PubMed PMID: 16738132; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1474065.
    Yang WJ, Yanofsky C

    Effects of tryptophan starvation on levels of the trp RNA-binding attenuation protein (TRAP) and anti-TRAP regulatory protein and their influence on trp operon expression in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2005 Mar;187(6):1884-91. PubMed PMID: 15743934; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1064063.
    McCabe BC, Gollnick P

    Cellular levels of trp RNA-binding attenuation protein in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2004 Aug;186(15):5157-9. PubMed PMID: 15262953; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC451653.
    Snyder D, Lary J, Chen Y, Gollnick P, Cole JL

    Interaction of the trp RNA-binding attenuation protein (TRAP) with anti-TRAP

    J Mol Biol. 2004 May 7;338(4):669-82. PubMed PMID: 15099736.
    Hopcroft NH, Manfredo A, Wendt AL, Brzozowski AM, Gollnick P, Antson AA

    The interaction of RNA with TRAP: the role of triplet repeats and separating spacer nucleotides

    J Mol Biol. 2004 Apr 16;338(1):43-53. PubMed PMID: 15050822.
    Deikus G, Babitzke P, Bechhofer DH

    Recycling of a regulatory protein by degradation of the RNA to which it binds

    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Mar 2;101(9):2747-51. PubMed PMID: 14976255; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC365692.
    Yakhnin H, Zhang H, Yakhnin AV, Babitzke P

    The trp RNA-binding attenuation protein of Bacillus subtilis regulates translation of the tryptophan transport gene trpP (yhaG) by blocking ribosome binding

    J Bacteriol. 2004 Jan;186(2):278-86. PubMed PMID: 14702295; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC305772.
    Li PT, Gollnick P

    Characterization of a trp RNA-binding attenuation protein (TRAP) mutant with tryptophan independent RNA binding activity

    J Mol Biol. 2004 Jan 16;335(3):707-22. PubMed PMID: 14687568.
    Schaak JE, Yakhnin H, Bevilacqua PC, Babitzke P

    A Mg2+-dependent RNA tertiary structure forms in the Bacillus subtilis trp operon leader transcript and appears to interfere with trpE translation control by inhibiting TRAP binding

    J Mol Biol. 2003 Sep 19;332(3):555-74. PubMed PMID: 12963367.
    Li PT, Gollnick P

    Using hetero-11-mers composed of wild type and mutant subunits to study tryptophan binding to TRAP and its role in activating RNA binding

    J Biol Chem. 2002 Sep 20;277(38):35567-73. PubMed PMID: 12133840.
    Hopcroft NH, Wendt AL, Gollnick P, Antson AA

    Specificity of TRAP-RNA interactions: crystal structures of two complexes with different RNA sequences

    Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2002 Apr;58(Pt 4):615-21. PubMed PMID: 11914485.
    Li PT, Scott DJ, Gollnick P

    Creating hetero-11-mers composed of wild-type and mutant subunits to study RNA binding to TRAP

    J Biol Chem. 2002 Apr 5;277(14):11838-44. PubMed PMID: 11805104.
    Valbuzzi A, Gollnick P, Babitzke P, Yanofsky C

    The anti-trp RNA-binding attenuation protein (Anti-TRAP), AT, recognizes the tryptophan-activated RNA binding domain of the TRAP regulatory protein

    J Biol Chem. 2002 Mar 22;277(12):10608-13. PubMed PMID: 11786553.
    Babitzke P, Gollnick P

    Posttranscription initiation control of tryptophan metabolism in Bacillus subtilis by the trp RNA-binding attenuation protein (TRAP), anti-TRAP, and RNA structure

    J Bacteriol. 2001 Oct;183(20):5795-802. Review. PubMed PMID: 11566976; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC99655.
    Babitzke P, Gollnick P

    Posttranscription initiation control of tryptophan metabolism in Bacillus subtilis by the trp RNA-binding attenuation protein (TRAP), anti-TRAP, and RNA structure

    J Bacteriol. 2001 Oct;183(20):5795-802. Review. PubMed PMID: 11566976; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC99655.
    Valbuzzi A, Yanofsky C

    Inhibition of the B

    subtilis regulatory protein TRAP by the TRAP-inhibitory protein, AT. Science. 2001 Sep 14;293(5537):2057-9. PubMed PMID: 11557884.
    Elliott MB, Gottlieb PA, Gollnick P

    The mechanism of RNA binding to TRAP: initiation and cooperative interactions

    RNA. 2001 Jan;7(1):85-93. PubMed PMID: 11214184; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1370072.
    Sarsero JP, Merino E, Yanofsky C

    A Bacillus subtilis gene of previously unknown function, yhaG, is translationally regulated by tryptophan-activated TRAP and appears to be involved in tryptophan transport

    J Bacteriol. 2000 Apr;182(8):2329-31. PubMed PMID: 10735881; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC111287.
    Du H, Yakhnin AV, Dharmaraj S, Babitzke P

    trp RNA-binding attenuation protein-5' stem-loop RNA interaction is required for proper transcription attenuation control of the Bacillus subtilis trpEDCFBA operon

    J Bacteriol. 2000 Apr;182(7):1819-27. PubMed PMID: 10714985; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC101863.
    Yakhnin AV, Trimble JJ, Chiaro CR, Babitzke P

    Effects of mutations in the L-tryptophan binding pocket of the Trp RNA-binding attenuation protein of Bacillus subtilis

    J Biol Chem. 2000 Feb 11;275(6):4519-24. PubMed PMID: 10660627.
    Antson AA, Dodson EJ, Dodson G, Greaves RB, Chen X, Gollnick P

    Structure of the trp RNA-binding attenuation protein, TRAP, bound to RNA

    Nature. 1999 Sep 16;401(6750):235-42. PubMed PMID: 10499579.
    Antson AA, Dodson EJ, Dodson G, Greaves RB, Chen X, Gollnick P

    Structure of the trp RNA-binding attenuation protein, TRAP, bound to RNA

    Nature. 1999 Sep 16;401(6750):235-42. PubMed PMID: 10499579.
    Chen Xp, Antson AA, Yang M, Li P, Baumann C, Dodson EJ, Dodson GG, Gollnick P

    Regulatory features of the trp operon and the crystal structure of the trp RNA-binding attenuation protein from Bacillus stearothermophilus

    J Mol Biol. 1999 Jun 18;289(4):1003-16. PubMed PMID: 10369778.
    Xirasagar S, Elliott MB, Bartolini W, Gollnick P, Gottlieb PA

    RNA structure inhibits the TRAP (trp RNA-binding attenuation protein)-RNA interaction

    J Biol Chem. 1998 Oct 16;273(42):27146-53. PubMed PMID: 9765233.
    Yang M, Chen Xp, Militello K, Hoffman R, Fernandez B, Baumann C, Gollnick P

    Alanine-scanning mutagenesis of Bacillus subtilis trp RNA-binding attenuation protein (TRAP) reveals residues involved in tryptophan binding and RNA binding

    J Mol Biol. 1997 Aug 1;270(5):696-710. PubMed PMID: 9245598.
    Baumann C, Xirasagar S, Gollnick P

    The trp RNA-binding attenuation protein (TRAP) from Bacillus subtilis binds to unstacked trp leader RNA

    J Biol Chem. 1997 Aug 8;272(32):19863-9. PubMed PMID: 9242649.
    Lee AI, Sarsero JP, Yanofsky C

    A temperature-sensitive trpS mutation interferes with trp RNA-binding attenuation protein (TRAP) regulation of trp gene expression in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 1996 Nov;178(22):6518-24. PubMed PMID: 8932308; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC178538.
    Baumann C, Otridge J, Gollnick P

    Kinetic and thermodynamic analysis of the interaction between TRAP (trp RNA-binding attenuation protein) of Bacillus subtilis and trp leader RNA

    J Biol Chem. 1996 May 24;271(21):12269-74. PubMed PMID: 8647825.
    Gollnick P, Baumann C, Yang M, Otridge J, Antson A

    Interaction of the 11-subunit trp RNA-binding attenuation protein (TRAP) with its RNA target

    Nucleic Acids Symp Ser. 1995;(33):43-5. PubMed PMID: 8643393.
    Babitzke P, Yanofsky C

    Structural features of L-tryptophan required for activation of TRAP, the trp RNA-binding attenuation protein of Bacillus subtilis

    J Biol Chem. 1995 May 26;270(21):12452-6. PubMed PMID: 7759487.
    Antson AA, Otridge J, Brzozowski AM, Dodson EJ, Dodson GG, Wilson KS, Smith TM, Yang M, Kurecki T, Gollnick P

    The structure of trp RNA-binding attenuation protein

    Nature. 1995 Apr 20;374(6524):693-700. PubMed PMID: 7715723.
    Antson AA, Otridge J, Brzozowski AM, Dodson EJ, Dodson GG, Wilson KS, Smith TM, Yang M, Kurecki T, Gollnick P

    The structure of trp RNA-binding attenuation protein

    Nature. 1995 Apr 20;374(6524):693-700. PubMed PMID: 7715723.
    Babitzke P, Yanofsky C

    Reconstitution of Bacillus subtilis trp attenuation in vitro with TRAP, the trp RNA-binding attenuation protein

    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Jan 1;90(1):133-7. PubMed PMID: 7678334; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC45614.
    Babitzke P, Bear DG, Yanofsky C

    TRAP, the trp RNA-binding attenuation protein of Bacillus subtilis, is a toroid-shaped molecule that binds transcripts containing GAG or UAG repeats separated by two nucleotides

    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 Aug 15;92(17):7916-20. PubMed PMID: 7544009; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC41257.
    Antson AA, Brzozowski AM, Dodson EJ, Dauter Z, Wilson KS, Kurecki T, Otridge J, Gollnick P

    11-fold symmetry of the trp RNA-binding attenuation protein (TRAP) from Bacillus subtilis determined by X-ray analysis

    J Mol Biol. 1994 Nov 18;244(1):1-5. PubMed PMID: 7525975.
    Babitzke P, Stults JT, Shire SJ, Yanofsky C

    TRAP, the trp RNA-binding attenuation protein of Bacillus subtilis, is a multisubunit complex that appears to recognize G/UAG repeats in the trpEDCFBA and trpG transcripts

    J Biol Chem. 1994 Jun 17;269(24):16597-604. PubMed PMID: 7515880.
    Babitzke P, Stults JT, Shire SJ, Yanofsky C

    TRAP, the trp RNA-binding attenuation protein of Bacillus subtilis, is a multisubunit complex that appears to recognize G/UAG repeats in the trpEDCFBA and trpG transcripts

    J Biol Chem. 1994 Jun 17;269(24):16597-604. PubMed PMID: 7515880.
    Gollnick P, Ishino S, Kuroda MI, Henner DJ, Yanofsky C

    The mtr locus is a two-gene operon required for transcription attenuation in the trp operon of Bacillus subtilis

    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 Nov;87(22):8726-30. PubMed PMID: 2123343; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC55032.
    Babitzke P, Gollnick P, Yanofsky C

    The mtrAB operon of Bacillus subtilis encodes GTP cyclohydrolase I (MtrA), an enzyme involved in folic acid biosynthesis, and MtrB, a regulator of tryptophan biosynthesis

    J Bacteriol. 1992 Apr;174(7):2059-64. PubMed PMID: 1551827; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC205820.
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