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Categories containing this gene/protein

phosphate metabolism, transcription factors and their control, regulators of core metabolism, sporulation proteins, general stress proteins (controlled by SigB), membrane proteins, phosphoproteins

This gene is a member of the following regulons

CcpA regulon, PhoP regulon, SigB regulon, SigE regulon

The PhoP regulon


  • Coordinates on the chromosome (coding sequence): 2,977,800 -> 2,978,522
  • The protein

    Catalyzed reaction/ biological activity

    Protein family

  • OmpR family of two-component response regulators
  • Paralogous protein(s)

    Kinetic information



  • phosphorylation by PhoR under conditions of phosphate limitation (stimulates DNA-binding activity)
  • Cofactors

    Effectors of protein activity

  • phosphorylation stimulates DNA-binding activity
  • Structure

  • 1MVO (receiver domain)
  • Localization

  • cell membrane (according to Swiss-Prot)
  • Interactions

  • PhoP-PhoP, PhoP-PhoR
  • Additional information

    Expression and Regulation


  • phoP-phoR PubMed
  • Sigma factor

  • SigA PubMed, SigB PubMed, SigE PubMed
  • Regulation

  • carbon catabolite repression (CcpA) PubMed
  • expressed under conditions of phosphate limitation (PhoP) PubMed
  • expressed in post-exponential phase (ScoC) PubMed
  • Regulatory mechanism

  • CcpA: transcription repression PubMed
  • PhoP: transcription activation, due to PhoP~P binding to the 3’end of the phoP-phoR operon PubMed
  • ScoC: transcription repression PubMed
  • Additional information

    Biological materials


  • 1A966 ( phoP::tet), PubMed, available at BGSC
  • Expression vector

    lacZ fusion

    GFP fusion

    two-hybrid system

    FLAG-tag construct


    Labs working on this gene/protein

  • Marion Hulett, University of Illinois at Chicago, USA Homepage
  • References

    Regulation of phoP]-[[phoR] expression

    Salzberg LI, Botella E, Hokamp K, Antelmann H, Maaß S, Becher D, Noone D, Devine KM

    Genome-wide analysis of phosphorylated PhoP binding to chromosomal DNA reveals several novel features of the PhoPR-mediated phosphate limitation response in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2015 Apr;197(8):1492-506. doi: 10.1128/JB.02570-14. Epub 2015 Feb 9. PubMed PMID: 25666134; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4372752.
    Kaushal B, Paul S, Hulett FM

    Direct regulation of Bacillus subtilis phoPR transcription by transition state regulator ScoC

    J Bacteriol. 2010 Jun;192(12):3103-13. doi: 10.1128/JB.00089-10. Epub 2010 Apr 9. PubMed PMID: 20382764; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2901694.
    Puri-Taneja A, Paul S, Chen Y, Hulett FM

    CcpA causes repression of the phoPR promoter through a novel transcription start site, P(A6)

    J Bacteriol. 2006 Feb;188(4):1266-78. PubMed PMID: 16452408; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1367233.
    Paul S, Birkey S, Liu W, Hulett FM

    Autoinduction of Bacillus subtilis phoPR operon transcription results from enhanced transcription from EsigmaA- and EsigmaE-responsive promoters by phosphorylated PhoP

    J Bacteriol. 2004 Jul;186(13):4262-75. PubMed PMID: 15205429; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC421599.
    Prágai Z, Allenby NE, O'Connor N, Dubrac S, Rapoport G, Msadek T, Harwood CR

    Transcriptional regulation of the phoPR operon in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2004 Feb;186(4):1182-90. PubMed PMID: 14762014; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC344217.
    Blencke HM, Homuth G, Ludwig H, Mäder U, Hecker M, Stülke J

    Transcriptional profiling of gene expression in response to glucose in Bacillus subtilis: regulation of the central metabolic pathways

    Metab Eng. 2003 Apr;5(2):133-49. PubMed PMID: 12850135.

    Biochemical analyses

    Jende I, Varughese KI, Devine KM

    Amino acid identity at one position within the alpha1 helix of both the histidine kinase and the response regulator of the WalRK and PhoPR two-component systems plays a crucial role in the specificity of phosphotransfer

    Microbiology. 2010 Jun;156(Pt 6):1848-59. doi: 10.1099/mic.0.037515-0. Epub 2010 Feb 18. PubMed PMID: 20167622.
    Eldakak A, Hulett FM

    Cys303 in the histidine kinase PhoR is crucial for the phosphotransfer reaction in the PhoPR two-component system in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2007 Jan;189(2):410-21. Epub 2006 Nov 3. PubMed PMID: 17085571; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1797398.
    Chen Y, Abdel-Fattah WR, Hulett FM

    Residues required for Bacillus subtilis PhoP DNA binding or RNA polymerase interaction: alanine scanning of PhoP effector domain transactivation loop and alpha helix 3

    J Bacteriol. 2004 Mar;186(5):1493-502. PubMed PMID: 14973033; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC344424.
    Chen Y, Birck C, Samama JP, Hulett FM

    Residue R113 is essential for PhoP dimerization and function: a residue buried in the asymmetric PhoP dimer interface determined in the PhoPN three-dimensional crystal structure

    J Bacteriol. 2003 Jan;185(1):262-73. PubMed PMID: 12486063; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC141829.
    Birck C, Chen Y, Hulett FM, Samama JP

    The crystal structure of the phosphorylation domain in PhoP reveals a functional tandem association mediated by an asymmetric interface

    J Bacteriol. 2003 Jan;185(1):254-61. PubMed PMID: 12486062; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC141828.
    Shi L, Liu W, Hulett FM

    Decay of activated Bacillus subtilis pho response regulator, PhoP approximately P, involves the PhoR approximately P intermediate

    Biochemistry. 1999 Aug 3;38(31):10119-25. PubMed PMID: 10433720.
    Qi Y, Hulett FM

    PhoP-P and RNA polymerase sigmaA holoenzyme are sufficient for transcription of Pho regulon promoters in Bacillus subtilis: PhoP-P activator sites within the coding region stimulate transcription in vitro

    Mol Microbiol. 1998 Jun;28(6):1187-97. PubMed PMID: 9680208.
    Liu W, Hulett FM

    Comparison of PhoP binding to the tuaA promoter with PhoP binding to other Pho-regulon promoters establishes a Bacillus subtilis Pho core binding site

    Microbiology. 1998 May;144 ( Pt 5):1443-50. PubMed PMID: 9611818.

    Targets of PhoR==

    Additional publications: PubMed
    1. Error occurred: cannot get document summary PMID: 20059685 Antelmann H, Scharf C, Hecker M

    Phosphate starvation-inducible proteins of Bacillus subtilis: proteomics and transcriptional analysis

    J Bacteriol. 2000 Aug;182(16):4478-90. PubMed PMID: 10913081; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC94619.
    Eder S, Liu W, Hulett FM

    Mutational analysis of the phoD promoter in Bacillus subtilis: implications for PhoP binding and promoter activation of Pho regulon promoters

    J Bacteriol. 1999 Apr;181(7):2017-25. PubMed PMID: 10094677; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC93612.
    Birkey SM, Liu W, Zhang X, Duggan MF, Hulett FM

    Pho signal transduction network reveals direct transcriptional regulation of one two-component system by another two-component regulator: Bacillus subtilis PhoP directly regulates production of ResD

    Mol Microbiol. 1998 Dec;30(5):943-53. PubMed PMID: 9988472.
    Qi Y, Hulett FM

    Role of Pho-P in transcriptional regulation of genes involved in cell wall anionic polymer biosynthesis in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 1998 Aug;180(15):4007-10. PubMed PMID: 9683503; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC107390.
    Liu W, Qi Y, Hulett FM

    Sites internal to the coding regions of phoA and pstS bind PhoP and are required for full promoter activity

    Mol Microbiol. 1998 Apr;28(1):119-30. PubMed PMID: 9593301.
    Liu W, Eder S, Hulett FM

    Analysis of Bacillus subtilis tagAB and tagDEF expression during phosphate starvation identifies a repressor role for PhoP-P

    J Bacteriol. 1998 Feb;180(3):753-8. PubMed PMID: 9457886; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC106950.
    Liu W, Hulett FM

    Bacillus subtilis PhoP binds to the phoB tandem promoter exclusively within the phosphate starvation-inducible promoter

    J Bacteriol. 1997 Oct;179(20):6302-10. PubMed PMID: 9335276; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC179543.
    Qi Y, Kobayashi Y, Hulett FM

    The pst operon of Bacillus subtilis has a phosphate-regulated promoter and is involved in phosphate transport but not in regulation of the pho regulon

    J Bacteriol. 1997 Apr;179(8):2534-9. PubMed PMID: 9098050; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC179001.
    10. Error occurred: cannot get document summary PMID: 0
    ==Other original publications
    Schau M, Eldakak A, Hulett FM

    Terminal oxidases are essential to bypass the requirement for ResD for full Pho induction in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2004 Dec;186(24):8424-32. PubMed PMID: 15576792; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC532433.
    Fabret C, Feher VA, Hoch JA

    Two-component signal transduction in Bacillus subtilis: how one organism sees its world

    J Bacteriol. 1999 Apr;181(7):1975-83. Review. PubMed PMID: 10094672; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC93607.
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