SubtiBank SubtiBank

Categories containing this gene/protein

biofilm formation, protein modification, membrane proteins

This gene is a member of the following regulons

AbrB regulon, DegU regulon, Spo0A regulon


  • Coordinates on the chromosome (coding sequence): 3,731,822 -> 3,732,535
  • Phenotypes of a mutant

  • Accumulation of extra chromosome equivalents PubMed
  • Defect in biofilm formation, this involves the kinase activity, but the target protein is unknown PubMed
  • The protein

    Catalyzed reaction/ biological activity

  • ATP + a protein]-L-tyrosine = ADP + a [protein]-L-tyrosine phosphate (according to Swiss-Prot), autophosphorylation, phosphorylation of Ugd, TuaD, Ssb, SsbB
  • Protein family

  • BY-kinase, see the [Bacterial Protein Tyrosine Kinase Database)
  • Paralogous protein(s)

  • EpsB
  • Kinetic information


  • single BY-kinase domain
  • Modification

  • autophosphorylation at residues Y225, Y227 and Y228 (primary site) PubMed, dephosphorylated by PtpZ PubMed
  • Cofactors

  • ATP
  • Effectors of protein activity

  • TkmA - transmembrane modulator, activates PtkA autophosphorylation and substrate phosphorylation PubMed
  • the mutually exclusive interactions of PtsA with the modulator proteins TkmA, SalA, and probably MinD direct the kinase to different substrates PubMed
  • Structure

  • 2VED (CapB, the homolog in Staphylococcus aureus)
  • Localization


  • PtkA-TkmA PubMed
  • FatR-PtkA PubMed
  • SalA-PtkA, for phosphorylation of SalA PubMed
  • DnaK-PtkA (for phosphorylation of DnaK) PubMed
  • Additional information

    Expression and Regulation


  • tkmA-ptkA-ptpZ-ugd PubMed
  • Sigma factor

  • SigA PubMed
  • Regulation

    Regulatory mechanism

  • Spo0A: transcription activation PubMed
  • DegU-P: transcription activation PubMed
  • AbrB: transcription repression PubMed
  • Additional information

    Biological materials


  • MGNA-A078 (ywqD::erm), available at the NBRP B. subtilis, Japan
  • KO strain created with pMUTIN-2, available from Ivan Mijakovic
  • GP1520 (spc), available in Jörg Stülke's lab
  • GP1544 (ermC), available in Jörg Stülke's lab
  • GP1587 (cat) , available in Jörg Stülke's lab
  • GP1521 epsB (aphA3) ptkA (spc) double mutant available in Jörg Stülke's lab
  • GP1529 tkmA-ptkA::spc available in Jörg Stülke's lab
  • GP1610 (ptkA-ptpZ, spc), available in Jörg Stülke's lab
  • Expression vector

  • pQE-30, N-terminally 6xHis-tagged, available from Ivan Mijakovic
  • lacZ fusion

  • in a KO strain created with pMUTIN-2, available from Ivan Mijakovic
  • GFP fusion

  • CFP-fusion, available from Ivan Mijakovic
  • two-hybrid system

  • B. pertussis adenylate cyclase-based bacterial two hybrid system (BACTH), available in Jörg Stülke's lab
  • FLAG-tag construct


    Labs working on this gene/protein

  • Ivan Mijakovic, Thiverval-Grignon, France
  • References


    Derouiche A, Shi L, Kalantari A, Mijakovic I

    Evolution and tinkering: what do a protein kinase, a transcriptional regulator and chromosome segregation/cell division proteins have in common

    Curr Genet. 2016 Feb;62(1):67-70. doi: 10.1007/s00294-015-0513-y. Epub 2015 Aug 19. Review. PubMed PMID: 26286503.
    Mijakovic I, Deutscher J

    Protein-tyrosine phosphorylation in Bacillus subtilis: a 10-year retrospective

    Front Microbiol. 2015 Jan 23;6:18. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2015.00018. eCollection 2015 Jan 23. PubMed PMID: 25667587; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4304235.
    Gerwig J, Stülke J

    Far from being well understood: multiple protein phosphorylation events control cell differentiation in Bacillus subtilis at different levels

    Front Microbiol. 2014 Dec 10;5:704. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2014.00704. eCollection 2014 Dec 10. PubMed PMID: 25540643; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4262085.
    Chao JD, Wong D, Av-Gay Y

    Microbial protein-tyrosine kinases

    J Biol Chem. 2014 Apr 4;289(14):9463-72. doi: 10.1074/jbc.R113.520015. Epub 2014 Feb 19. Review. PubMed PMID: 24554699; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3974996.
    Stülke J

    More than just activity control: phosphorylation may control all aspects of a protein's properties

    Mol Microbiol. 2010 Jul;77(2):273-5. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2010.07228.x. Epub 2010 May 24. PubMed PMID: 20497498.

    Original publications

    Derouiche A, Shi L, Kalantari A, Mijakovic I

    Substrate Specificity of the Bacillus subtilis BY-Kinase PtkA Is Controlled by Alternative Activators: TkmA and SalA

    Front Microbiol. 2016 Sep 26;7:1525. eCollection 2016 Sep 26. PubMed PMID: 27725816; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5035731.
    Shi L, Ravikumar V, Derouiche A, Macek B, Mijakovic I

    Tyrosine 601 of Bacillus subtilis DnaK Undergoes Phosphorylation and Is Crucial for Chaperone Activity and Heat Shock Survival

    Front Microbiol. 2016 Apr 19;7:533. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2016.00533. eCollection 2016 Apr 19. PubMed PMID: 27148221; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4835898.
    Gao T, Greenwich J, Li Y, Wang Q, Chai Y

    The Bacterial Tyrosine Kinase Activator TkmA Contributes to Biofilm Formation Largely Independently of the Cognate Kinase PtkA in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2015 Nov;197(21):3421-32. doi: 10.1128/JB.00438-15. Epub 2015 Aug 17. PubMed PMID: 26283769; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4621062.
    Derouiche A, Shi L, Bidnenko V, Ventroux M, Pigonneau N, Franz-Wachtel M, Kalantari A, Nessler S, Noirot-Gros MF, Mijakovic I

    Bacillus subtilis SalA is a phosphorylation-dependent transcription regulator that represses scoC and activates the production of the exoprotease AprE

    Mol Microbiol. 2015 Sep;97(6):1195-208. doi: 10.1111/mmi.13098. Epub 2015 Jul 17. PubMed PMID: 26094643.
    Shi L, Pigeonneau N, Ventroux M, Derouiche A, Bidnenko V, Mijakovic I, Noirot-Gros MF

    Protein-tyrosine phosphorylation interaction network in Bacillus subtilis reveals new substrates, kinase activators and kinase cross-talk

    Front Microbiol. 2014 Oct 22;5:538. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2014.00538. eCollection 2014 Oct 22. PubMed PMID: 25374563; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4205851.
    Shi L, Pigeonneau N, Ravikumar V, Dobrinic P, Macek B, Franjevic D, Noirot-Gros MF, Mijakovic I

    Cross-phosphorylation of bacterial serine/threonine and tyrosine protein kinases on key regulatory residues

    Front Microbiol. 2014 Sep 17;5:495. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2014.00495. eCollection 2014 Sep 17. PubMed PMID: 25278935; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4166321.
    Shi L, Ji B, Kolar-Znika L, Boskovic A, Jadeau F, Combet C, Grangeasse C, Franjevic D, Talla E, Mijakovic I

    Evolution of bacterial protein-tyrosine kinases and their relaxed specificity toward substrates

    Genome Biol Evol. 2014 Apr;6(4):800-17. doi: 10.1093/gbe/evu056. PubMed PMID: 24728941; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4007543.
    Gerwig J, Kiley TB, Gunka K, Stanley-Wall N, Stülke J

    The protein tyrosine kinases EpsB and PtkA differentially affect biofilm formation in Bacillus subtilis

    Microbiology. 2014 Apr;160(Pt 4):682-91. doi: 10.1099/mic.0.074971-0. Epub 2014 Feb 3. PubMed PMID: 24493247; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3973450.
    Derouiche A, Bidnenko V, Grenha R, Pigonneau N, Ventroux M, Franz-Wachtel M, Nessler S, Noirot-Gros MF, Mijakovic I

    Interaction of bacterial fatty-acid-displaced regulators with DNA is interrupted by tyrosine phosphorylation in the helix-turn-helix domain

    Nucleic Acids Res. 2013 Nov;41(20):9371-81. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkt709. Epub 2013 Aug 11. PubMed PMID: 23939619; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3814354.
    Chumsakul O, Takahashi H, Oshima T, Hishimoto T, Kanaya S, Ogasawara N, Ishikawa S

    Genome-wide binding profiles of the Bacillus subtilis transition state regulator AbrB and its homolog Abh reveals their interactive role in transcriptional regulation

    Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Jan;39(2):414-28. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkq780. Epub 2010 Sep 3. PubMed PMID: 20817675; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3025583.
    Kiley TB, Stanley-Wall NR

    Post-translational control of Bacillus subtilis biofilm formation mediated by tyrosine phosphorylation

    Mol Microbiol. 2010 Nov;78(4):947-63. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2010.07382.x. Epub 2010 Sep 29. PubMed PMID: 20815827.
    Soufi B, Kumar C, Gnad F, Mann M, Mijakovic I, Macek B

    Stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) applied to quantitative proteomics of Bacillus subtilis

    J Proteome Res. 2010 Jul 2;9(7):3638-46. doi: 10.1021/pr100150w. PubMed PMID: 20509597.
    Jers C, Pedersen MM, Paspaliari DK, Schütz W, Johnsson C, Soufi B, Macek B, Jensen PR, Mijakovic I

    Bacillus subtilis BY-kinase PtkA controls enzyme activity and localization of its protein substrates

    Mol Microbiol. 2010 Jul;77(2):287-99. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2010.07227.x. Epub 2010 May 24. PubMed PMID: 20497499.
    Petranovic D, Grangeasse C, Macek B, Abdillatef M, Gueguen-Chaignon V, Nessler S, Deutscher J, Mijakovic I

    Activation of Bacillus subtilis Ugd by the BY-kinase PtkA proceeds via phosphorylation of its residue tyrosine 70

    J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2009;17(2):83-9. doi: 10.1159/000206635. Epub 2009 Mar 4. PubMed PMID: 19258708.
    Olivares-Illana V, Meyer P, Bechet E, Gueguen-Chaignon V, Soulat D, Lazereg-Riquier S, Mijakovic I, Deutscher J, Cozzone AJ, Laprévote O, Morera S, Grangeasse C, Nessler S

    Structural basis for the regulation mechanism of the tyrosine kinase CapB from Staphylococcus aureus

    PLoS Biol. 2008 Jun 10;6(6):e143. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0060143. PubMed PMID: 18547145; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2422856.
    Petranovic D, Michelsen O, Zahradka K, Silva C, Petranovic M, Jensen PR, Mijakovic I

    Bacillus subtilis strain deficient for the protein-tyrosine kinase PtkA exhibits impaired DNA replication

    Mol Microbiol. 2007 Mar;63(6):1797-805. PubMed PMID: 17367396.
    Mijakovic I, Musumeci L, Tautz L, Petranovic D, Edwards RA, Jensen PR, Mustelin T, Deutscher J, Bottini N

    In vitro characterization of the Bacillus subtilis protein tyrosine phosphatase YwqE

    J Bacteriol. 2005 May;187(10):3384-90. PubMed PMID: 15866923; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1112022.
    Mijakovic I, Petranovic D, Deutscher J

    How tyrosine phosphorylation affects the UDP-glucose dehydrogenase activity of Bacillus subtilis YwqF

    J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol. 2004;8(1):19-25. PubMed PMID: 15741737.
    Mijakovic I, Poncet S, Boël G, Mazé A, Gillet S, Jamet E, Decottignies P, Grangeasse C, Doublet P, Le Maréchal P, Deutscher J

    Transmembrane modulator-dependent bacterial tyrosine kinase activates UDP-glucose dehydrogenases

    EMBO J. 2003 Sep 15;22(18):4709-18. PubMed PMID: 12970183; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC212725.
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