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Categories containing this gene/protein

biosynthesis/ acquisition of nucleotides, transcription factors and their control, RNA binding regulators

This gene is a member of the following regulons

PyrR regulon

The PyrR regulon


  • Coordinates on the chromosome (coding sequence): 1,618,304 -> 1,618,849
  • The protein

    Catalyzed reaction/ biological activity

  • UMP + diphosphate = uracil + 5-phospho-alpha-D-ribose 1-diphosphate (according to Swiss-Prot)
  • Protein family

  • PyrR subfamily (according to Swiss-Prot)
  • Paralogous protein(s)

    Kinetic information




    Effectors of protein activity


  • 1A3C (dimeric form)
  • Localization


  • PyrR-PyrR PubMed
  • Additional information

    Expression and Regulation


  • pyrR-pyrP-pyrB-pyrC-pyrAA-pyrAB-pyrK-pyrD-pyrF-pyrE PubMed
  • Sigma factor

  • SigA PubMed
  • Regulation

  • induced in the absence of uridine nucleotides (PyrR) PubMed
  • Regulatory mechanism

  • PyrR: RNA switch, transcription termination/ antitermination (in the presence of uridine nucleotides: termination, in their absence: antitermination) PubMed
  • Additional information

    Biological materials


    Expression vector

    lacZ fusion

    GFP fusion

    two-hybrid system

    FLAG-tag construct


    Labs working on this gene/protein



    Hove-Jensen B(1,)(2), Andersen KR(2), Kilstrup M(3), Martinussen J(3), Switzer RL(4), Willemo√ęs M(5).

    Phosphoribosyl Diphosphate (PRPP): Biosynthesis, Enzymology, Utilization, and Metabolic Significance.

    Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2016 Dec 28;81(1). pii: e00040-16. doi: 10.1128/MMBR.00040-16. Print 2017 Mar.DOI: 10.1128/MMBR.00040-16 PMCID: PMC5312242 [Available on 2017-12-28] PMID: 28031352

    Original publications

    Hobl B, Mack M

    The regulator protein PyrR of Bacillus subtilis specifically interacts in vivo with three untranslated regions within pyr mRNA of pyrimidine biosynthesis

    Microbiology. 2007 Mar;153(Pt 3):693-700. PubMed PMID: 17322189.
    Chander P, Halbig KM, Miller JK, Fields CJ, Bonner HK, Grabner GK, Switzer RL, Smith JL

    Structure of the nucleotide complex of PyrR, the pyr attenuation protein from Bacillus caldolyticus, suggests dual regulation by pyrimidine and purine nucleotides

    J Bacteriol. 2005 Mar;187(5):1773-82. PubMed PMID: 15716449; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1064020.
    Zhang H, Switzer RL

    Transcriptional pausing in the Bacillus subtilis pyr operon in vitro: a role in transcriptional attenuation

    J Bacteriol. 2003 Aug;185(16):4764-71. PubMed PMID: 12896995; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC166459.
    Grabner GK, Switzer RL

    Kinetic studies of the uracil phosphoribosyltransferase reaction catalyzed by the Bacillus subtilis pyrimidine attenuation regulatory protein PyrR

    J Biol Chem. 2003 Feb 28;278(9):6921-7. Epub 2002 Dec 13. PubMed PMID: 12482852.
    Savacool HK, Switzer RL

    Characterization of the interaction of Bacillus subtilis PyrR with pyr mRNA by site-directed mutagenesis of the protein

    J Bacteriol. 2002 May;184(9):2521-8. PubMed PMID: 11948166; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC134998.
    Bonner ER, D'Elia JN, Billips BK, Switzer RL

    Molecular recognition of pyr mRNA by the Bacillus subtilis attenuation regulatory protein PyrR

    Nucleic Acids Res. 2001 Dec 1;29(23):4851-65. PubMed PMID: 11726695; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC96680.
    Switzer RL, Turner RJ, Lu Y

    Regulation of the Bacillus subtilis pyrimidine biosynthetic operon by transcriptional attenuation: control of gene expression by an mRNA-binding protein

    Prog Nucleic Acid Res Mol Biol. 1999;62:329-67. Review. PubMed PMID: 9932459.
    Tomchick DR, Turner RJ, Switzer RL, Smith JL

    Adaptation of an enzyme to regulatory function: structure of Bacillus subtilis PyrR, a pyr RNA-binding attenuation protein and uracil phosphoribosyltransferase

    Structure. 1998 Mar 15;6(3):337-50. PubMed PMID: 9551555.
    Turner RJ, Bonner ER, Grabner GK, Switzer RL

    Purification and characterization of Bacillus subtilis PyrR, a bifunctional pyr mRNA-binding attenuation protein/uracil phosphoribosyltransferase

    J Biol Chem. 1998 Mar 6;273(10):5932-8. PubMed PMID: 9488732.
    Turner RJ, Bonner ER, Grabner GK, Switzer RL

    Purification and characterization of Bacillus subtilis PyrR, a bifunctional pyr mRNA-binding attenuation protein/uracil phosphoribosyltransferase

    J Biol Chem. 1998 Mar 6;273(10):5932-8. PubMed PMID: 9488732.
    Lu Y, Switzer RL

    Transcriptional attenuation of the Bacillus subtilis pyr operon by the PyrR regulatory protein and uridine nucleotides in vitro

    J Bacteriol. 1996 Dec;178(24):7206-11. PubMed PMID: 8955403; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC178634.
    Ghim SY, Switzer RL

    Mutations in Bacillus subtilis PyrR, the pyr regulatory protein, with defects in regulation by pyrimidines

    FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1996 Mar 15;137(1):13-8. PubMed PMID: 8935652.
    Lu Y, Switzer RL

    Evidence that the Bacillus subtilis pyrimidine regulatory protein PyrR acts by binding to pyr mRNA at three sites in vivo

    J Bacteriol. 1996 Oct;178(19):5806-9. PubMed PMID: 8824632; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC178426.
    Kahler AE, Switzer RL

    Identification of a novel gene of pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthesis, pyrDII, that is required for dihydroorotate dehydrogenase activity in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 1996 Aug;178(16):5013-6. PubMed PMID: 8759868; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC178287.
    Turner RJ, Lu Y, Switzer RL

    Regulation of the Bacillus subtilis pyrimidine biosynthetic (pyr) gene cluster by an autogenous transcriptional attenuation mechanism

    J Bacteriol. 1994 Jun;176(12):3708-22. PubMed PMID: 8206849; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC205560.
    Lu Y, Turner RJ, Switzer RL

    Roles of the three transcriptional attenuators of the Bacillus subtilis pyrimidine biosynthetic operon in the regulation of its expression

    J Bacteriol. 1995 Mar;177(5):1315-25. PubMed PMID: 7868607; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC176739.
    Martinussen J, Glaser P, Andersen PS, Saxild HH

    Two genes encoding uracil phosphoribosyltransferase are present in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 1995 Jan;177(1):271-4. PubMed PMID: 7798145; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC176586.
    Quinn CL, Stephenson BT, Switzer RL

    Functional organization and nucleotide sequence of the Bacillus subtilis pyrimidine biosynthetic operon

    J Biol Chem. 1991 May 15;266(14):9113-27. PubMed PMID: 1709162.
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