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Categories containing this gene/protein

genetic competence, transcription factors and their control

This gene is a member of the following regulons

AbrB regulon, Rok regulon, SinR regulon, Spo0A regulon

The Rok regulon


  • Coordinates on the chromosome (coding sequence): 1,493,787 -> 1,494,362
  • Phenotypes of a mutant

  • higher excision rate of the conjugative transposon ICEBs1 PubMed
  • The protein

    Catalyzed reaction/ biological activity

  • binds to extended regions of the B. subtilis genome that are characterized by a high A+T content and are known or believed to have been acquired by horizontal gene transfer PubMed
  • Protein family

    Paralogous protein(s)

    Kinetic information




    Effectors of protein activity

  • activity is modulated by interaction with DnaA PubMed
  • Structure



  • DnaA-Rok, to modulate Rok activity PubMed
  • Additional information

    Expression and Regulation


  • rok PubMed
  • Sigma factor


  • repressed under conditions that trigger sporulation (Spo0A) PubMed
  • repressed by SinR PubMed
  • repressed by Rok PubMed
  • repressed during logrithmic growth (AbrB) PubMed
  • Regulatory mechanism

  • Spo0A: transcription repression PubMed
  • SinR: transcription repression PubMed
  • Rok: transcription repression PubMed
  • AbrB: transcription repression PubMed
  • Additional information

    Biological materials


  • MGNA-B345 (ykuW::erm), available at the NBRP B. subtilis, Japan
  • Expression vector

    lacZ fusion

    GFP fusion

    two-hybrid system

    FLAG-tag construct


    Labs working on this gene/protein



    Schultz D(1), Wolynes PG, Ben Jacob E, Onuchic JN.

    Deciding fate in adverse times: sporulation and competence in Bacillus subtilis.

    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Dec 15;106(50):21027-34. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0912185106. Epub 2009 Dec 7.

    Original publications

    Seid CA, Smith JL, Grossman AD

    Genetic and biochemical interactions between the bacterial replication initiator DnaA and the nucleoid-associated protein Rok in Bacillus subtilis

    Mol Microbiol. 2017 Mar;103(5):798-817. doi: 10.1111/mmi.13590. Epub 2017 Jan 3. PubMed PMID: 27902860; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5323315.
    Yüksel M, Power JJ, Ribbe J, Volkmann T, Maier B

    Fitness Trade-Offs in Competence Differentiation of Bacillus subtilis

    Front Microbiol. 2016 Jun 7;7:888. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2016.00888. eCollection 2016. PubMed PMID: 27375604; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4896167.
    Kovács AT, Kuipers OP

    Rok regulates yuaB expression during architecturally complex colony development of Bacillus subtilis 168

    J Bacteriol. 2011 Feb;193(4):998-1002. doi: 10.1128/JB.01170-10. Epub 2010 Nov 19. PubMed PMID: 21097620; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3028688.
    Smits WK, Grossman AD

    The transcriptional regulator Rok binds A+T-rich DNA and is involved in repression of a mobile genetic element in Bacillus subtilis

    PLoS Genet. 2010 Nov 11;6(11):e1001207. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1001207. PubMed PMID: 21085634; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2978689.
    Albano M, Smits WK, Ho LT, Kraigher B, Mandic-Mulec I, Kuipers OP, Dubnau D

    The Rok protein of Bacillus subtilis represses genes for cell surface and extracellular functions

    J Bacteriol. 2005 Mar;187(6):2010-9. PubMed PMID: 15743949; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1064057.
    Molle V, Fujita M, Jensen ST, Eichenberger P, González-Pastor JE, Liu JS, Losick R

    The Spo0A regulon of Bacillus subtilis

    Mol Microbiol. 2003 Dec;50(5):1683-701. PubMed PMID: 14651647.
    Baichoo N, Wang T, Ye R, Helmann JD

    Global analysis of the Bacillus subtilis Fur regulon and the iron starvation stimulon

    Mol Microbiol. 2002 Sep;45(6):1613-29. PubMed PMID: 12354229.
    Hoa TT, Tortosa P, Albano M, Dubnau D

    Rok (YkuW) regulates genetic competence in Bacillus subtilis by directly repressing comK

    Mol Microbiol. 2002 Jan;43(1):15-26. PubMed PMID: 11849533.
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