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Categories containing this gene/protein

transcription, sigma factors and their control, sporulation proteins

This gene is a member of the following regulons

SinR regulon, Spo0A regulon, Efp-dependent proteins

The SigE regulon


  • Coordinates on the chromosome (coding sequence): 1,604,771 -> 1,605,490
  • The protein

    Catalyzed reaction/ biological activity

  • RNA polymerase sigma factor, active in the mother cell
  • Protein family

  • sigma-70 factor family (according to Swiss-Prot)
  • Paralogous protein(s)

    Kinetic information




    Effectors of protein activity




  • SigE-(RpoB-RpoC)
  • SpoIIGA-SigE (Processing) PubMed
  • CsfB-SigE to inhibit SigE activity PubMed
  • Additional information

    Expression and Regulation


  • spoIIGA-sigE-sigG PubMed
  • Sigma factor

  • SigA PubMed
  • Regulation

  • expressed under conditions that trigger sporulation (Spo0A) PubMed
  • Regulatory mechanism

  • repression by SinR
  • Spo0A: transcription activation PubMed
  • Additional information

  • [[translation]] is likely to require Efp due to the presence of several consecutive proline residues PubMed
  • Biological materials


    Expression vector

    lacZ fusion

    GFP fusion

    two-hybrid system

    FLAG-tag construct


    Labs working on this gene/protein

  • Bill Haldenwang, San Antonio, USA
  • Charles Moran, Emory University, NC, USA homepage
  • References


    de Hoon MJ(1), Eichenberger P, Vitkup D.

    Hierarchical evolution of the bacterial sporulation network.

    Curr Biol. 2010 Sep 14;20(17):R735-45. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2010.06.031.DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2010.06.031 PMCID: PMC2944226 PMID: 20833318 [Indexed for MEDLINE]

    The SigE regulon

    Eichenberger P, Fujita M, Jensen ST, Conlon EM, Rudner DZ, Wang ST, Ferguson C, Haga K, Sato T, Liu JS, Losick R

    The program of gene transcription for a single differentiating cell type during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis

    PLoS Biol. 2004 Oct;2(10):e328. Epub 2004 Sep 21. PubMed PMID: 15383836; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC517825.
    Feucht A, Evans L, Errington J

    Identification of sporulation genes by genome-wide analysis of the sigmaE regulon of Bacillus subtilis

    Microbiology. 2003 Oct;149(Pt 10):3023-34. PubMed PMID: 14523133.
    Eichenberger P, Jensen ST, Conlon EM, van Ooij C, Silvaggi J, González-Pastor JE, Fujita M, Ben-Yehuda S, Stragier P, Liu JS, Losick R

    The sigmaE regulon and the identification of additional sporulation genes in Bacillus subtilis

    J Mol Biol. 2003 Apr 11;327(5):945-72. PubMed PMID: 12662922.

    Original Publications

    Serrano M, Gao J, Bota J, Bate AR, Meisner J, Eichenberger P, Moran CP Jr, Henriques AO

    Dual-specificity anti-sigma factor reinforces control of cell-type specific gene expression in Bacillus subtilis

    PLoS Genet. 2015 Apr 2;11(4):e1005104. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1005104. eCollection 2015 Apr. PubMed PMID: 25835496; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4383634.
    Narula J, Devi SN, Fujita M, Igoshin OA

    Ultrasensitivity of the Bacillus subtilis sporulation decision

    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Dec 11;109(50):E3513-22. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1213974109. Epub 2012 Nov 19. PubMed PMID: 23169620; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3528541.
    Xenopoulos P, Piggot PJ

    Regulation of growth of the mother cell and chromosome replication during sporulation of Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2011 Jun;193(12):3117-26. doi: 10.1128/JB.00204-11. Epub 2011 Apr 8. PubMed PMID: 21478340; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3133180.
    Imamura D, Kuwana R, Kroos L, Feig M, Takamatsu H, Watabe K

    Substrate specificity of SpoIIGA, a signal-transducing aspartic protease in Bacilli

    J Biochem. 2011 Jun;149(6):665-71. doi: 10.1093/jb/mvr027. Epub 2011 Feb 28. PubMed PMID: 21362630; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3143438.
    Chary VK, Xenopoulos P, Eldar A, Piggot PJ

    Loss of compartmentalization of σ(E) activity need not prevent formation of spores by Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2010 Nov;192(21):5616-24. doi: 10.1128/JB.00572-10. Epub 2010 Aug 27. PubMed PMID: 20802044; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2953694.
    Bosak T, Losick RM, Pearson A

    A polycyclic terpenoid that alleviates oxidative stress

    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 May 6;105(18):6725-9. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0800199105. Epub 2008 Apr 24. PubMed PMID: 18436644; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2373358.
    McBride SM, Rubio A, Wang L, Haldenwang WG

    Contributions of protein structure and gene position to the compartmentalization of the regulatory proteins sigma(E) and SpoIIE in sporulating Bacillus subtilis

    Mol Microbiol. 2005 Jul;57(2):434-51. PubMed PMID: 15978076.
    Dworkin J, Losick R

    Developmental commitment in a bacterium

    Cell. 2005 May 6;121(3):401-9. PubMed PMID: 15882622.
    Fujita M, González-Pastor JE, Losick R

    High- and low-threshold genes in the Spo0A regulon of Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2005 Feb;187(4):1357-68. PubMed PMID: 15687200; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC545642.
    Silvaggi JM, Popham DL, Driks A, Eichenberger P, Losick R

    Unmasking novel sporulation genes in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2004 Dec;186(23):8089-95. PubMed PMID: 15547282; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC529092.
    McBride S, Haldenwang WG

    Sporulation phenotype of a Bacillus subtilis mutant expressing an unprocessable but active sigmaE transcription factor

    J Bacteriol. 2004 Apr;186(7):1999-2005. PubMed PMID: 15028683; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC374411.
    Kuwana R, Yamamura S, Ikejiri H, Kobayashi K, Ogasawara N, Asai K, Sadaie Y, Takamatsu H, Watabe K

    Bacillus subtilis spoVIF (yjcC) gene, involved in coat assembly and spore resistance

    Microbiology. 2003 Oct;149(Pt 10):3011-21. PubMed PMID: 14523132.
    Ju J, Haldenwang WG

    Tethering of the Bacillus subtilis sigma E proprotein to the cell membrane is necessary for its processing but insufficient for its stabilization

    J Bacteriol. 2003 Oct;185(19):5897-900. PubMed PMID: 13129963; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC193969.
    Ragkousi K, Eichenberger P, van Ooij C, Setlow P

    Identification of a new gene essential for germination of Bacillus subtilis spores with Ca2+-dipicolinate

    J Bacteriol. 2003 Apr;185(7):2315-29. PubMed PMID: 12644503; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC151495.
    Eichenberger P, Fawcett P, Losick R

    A three-protein inhibitor of polar septation during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis

    Mol Microbiol. 2001 Dec;42(5):1147-62. PubMed PMID: 11886548.
    Fujita M, Losick R

    An investigation into the compartmentalization of the sporulation transcription factor sigmaE in Bacillus subtilis

    Mol Microbiol. 2002 Jan;43(1):27-38. PubMed PMID: 11849534.
    Fawcett P, Eichenberger P, Losick R, Youngman P

    The transcriptional profile of early to middle sporulation in Bacillus subtilis

    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Jul 5;97(14):8063-8. PubMed PMID: 10869437; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC16670.
    Ju J, Haldenwang WG

    The "pro" sequence of the sporulation-specific sigma transcription factor sigma(E) directs it to the mother cell side of the sporulation septum

    J Bacteriol. 1999 Oct;181(19):6171-5. PubMed PMID: 10498732; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC103647.
    Ju J, Mitchell T, Peters H 3rd, Haldenwang WG

    Sigma factor displacement from RNA polymerase during Bacillus subtilis sporulation

    J Bacteriol. 1999 Aug;181(16):4969-77. PubMed PMID: 10438769; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC93986.
    Ju J, Luo T, Haldenwang WG

    Forespore expression and processing of the SigE transcription factor in wild-type and mutant Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 1998 Apr;180(7):1673-81. PubMed PMID: 9537362; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC107077.
    Ju J, Luo T, Haldenwang WG

    Bacillus subtilis Pro-sigmaE fusion protein localizes to the forespore septum and fails to be processed when synthesized in the forespore

    J Bacteriol. 1997 Aug;179(15):4888-93. PubMed PMID: 9244279; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC179338.
    Pogliano K, Hofmeister AE, Losick R

    Disappearance of the sigma E transcription factor from the forespore and the SpoIIE phosphatase from the mother cell contributes to establishment of cell-specific gene expression during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 1997 May;179(10):3331-41. PubMed PMID: 9150232; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC179115.
    Zhang B, Daniel RA, Errington J, Kroos L

    Bacillus subtilis SpoIIID protein binds to two sites in the spoVD promoter and represses transcription by sigmaE RNA polymerase

    J Bacteriol. 1997 Feb;179(3):972-5. PubMed PMID: 9006059; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC178786.
    Carlson HC, Lu S, Kroos L, Haldenwang WG

    Exchange of precursor-specific elements between Pro-sigma E and Pro-sigma K of Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 1996 Jan;178(2):546-9. PubMed PMID: 8550479; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC177691.
    Beall B, Driks A, Losick R, Moran CP Jr

    Cloning and characterization of a gene required for assembly of the Bacillus subtilis spore coat

    J Bacteriol. 1993 Mar;175(6):1705-16. PubMed PMID: 8449878; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC203965.
    Baldus JM, Green BD, Youngman P, Moran CP Jr

    Phosphorylation of Bacillus subtilis transcription factor Spo0A stimulates transcription from the spoIIG promoter by enhancing binding to weak 0A boxes

    J Bacteriol. 1994 Jan;176(2):296-306. PubMed PMID: 8288522; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC205050.
    Levin PA, Fan N, Ricca E, Driks A, Losick R, Cutting S

    An unusually small gene required for sporulation by Bacillus subtilis

    Mol Microbiol. 1993 Aug;9(4):761-71. PubMed PMID: 8231808.
    Lewis PJ, Partridge SR, Errington J

    Sigma factors, asymmetry, and the determination of cell fate in Bacillus subtilis

    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Apr 26;91(9):3849-53. PubMed PMID: 8171000; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC43679.
    Peters HK 3rd, Haldenwang WG

    Isolation of a Bacillus subtilis spoIIGA allele that suppresses processing-negative mutations in the Pro-sigma E gene (sigE)

    J Bacteriol. 1994 Dec;176(24):7763-6. PubMed PMID: 8002606; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC197240.
    Harry EJ, Pogliano K, Losick R

    Use of immunofluorescence to visualize cell-specific gene expression during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 1995 Jun;177(12):3386-93. PubMed PMID: 7768847; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC177040.
    Shuler MF, Tatti KM, Wade KH, Moran CP Jr

    A single amino acid substitution in sigma E affects its ability to bind core RNA polymerase

    J Bacteriol. 1995 Jul;177(13):3687-94. PubMed PMID: 7601832; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC177084.
    Hofmeister AE, Londoño-Vallejo A, Harry E, Stragier P, Losick R

    Extracellular signal protein triggering the proteolytic activation of a developmental transcription factor in B

    subtilis. Cell. 1995 Oct 20;83(2):219-26. PubMed PMID: 7585939.
    Tatti KM, Shuler MF, Moran CP Jr

    Sequence-specific interactions between promoter DNA and the RNA polymerase sigma factor E

    J Mol Biol. 1995 Oct 13;253(1):8-16. PubMed PMID: 7473719.
    Kunkel B, Kroos L, Poth H, Youngman P, Losick R

    Temporal and spatial control of the mother-cell regulatory gene spoIIID of Bacillus subtilis

    Genes Dev. 1989 Nov;3(11):1735-44. PubMed PMID: 2514119.
    Carlson HC, Haldenwang WG

    The sigma E subunit of Bacillus subtilis RNA polymerase is present in both forespore and mother cell compartments

    J Bacteriol. 1989 Apr;171(4):2216-8. PubMed PMID: 2495274; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC209880.
    Jonas RM, Holt SC, Haldenwang WG

    Effects of antibiotics on synthesis and persistence of sigma E in sporulating Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 1990 Aug;172(8):4616-23. PubMed PMID: 2115871; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC213296.
    Jonas RM, Peters HK 3rd, Haldenwang WG

    Phenotypes of Bacillus subtilis mutants altered in the precursor-specific region of sigma E

    J Bacteriol. 1990 Aug;172(8):4178-86. PubMed PMID: 2115864; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC213240.
    Driks A, Losick R

    Compartmentalized expression of a gene under the control of sporulation transcription factor sigma E in Bacillus subtilis

    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Nov 15;88(22):9934-8. PubMed PMID: 1946462; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC52841.
    Tatti KM, Jones CH, Moran CP Jr

    Genetic evidence for interaction of sigma E with the spoIIID promoter in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 1991 Dec;173(24):7828-33. PubMed PMID: 1744038; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC212573.
    Peters HK 3rd, Haldenwang WG

    Synthesis and fractionation properties of SpoIIGA, a protein essential for pro-sigma E processing in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 1991 Dec;173(24):7821-7. PubMed PMID: 1744037; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC212572.
    Roels S, Driks A, Losick R

    Characterization of spoIVA, a sporulation gene involved in coat morphogenesis in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 1992 Jan;174(2):575-85. PubMed PMID: 1729246; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC205752.
    Peters HK 3rd, Carlson HC, Haldenwang WG

    Mutational analysis of the precursor-specific region of Bacillus subtilis sigma E

    J Bacteriol. 1992 Jul;174(14):4629-37. PubMed PMID: 1624450; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC206258.
    Jones CH, Moran CP Jr

    Mutant sigma factor blocks transition between promoter binding and initiation of transcription

    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Mar 1;89(5):1958-62. PubMed PMID: 1542693; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC48573.
    Jones CH, Tatti KM, Moran CP Jr

    Effects of amino acid substitutions in the -10 binding region of sigma E from Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 1992 Nov;174(21):6815-21. PubMed PMID: 1400231; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC207357.
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