SubtiBank SubtiBank

Categories containing this gene/protein

transcription, sigma factors and their control, sporulation proteins, membrane proteins

This gene is a member of the following regulons

AbrB regulon, SigF regulon, SigG regulon, SigH regulon, SinR regulon, Spo0A regulon

The SigF regulon


  • Coordinates on the chromosome (coding sequence): 2,443,429 -> 2,444,196
  • The protein

    Catalyzed reaction/ biological activity

    Protein family

  • sigma-70 factor family (according to Swiss-Prot)
  • Paralogous protein(s)

  • SigG
  • Kinetic information




    Effectors of protein activity


  • 1L0O (complex with SpoIIAB, Geobacillus stearothermophilus)
  • Localization

  • cell membrane (according to Swiss-Prot)
  • Interactions

  • SigF-Fin (probably) PubMed
  • SigF-SpoIIAB
  • SigF-(RpoB-RpoC)
  • Additional information

    Expression and Regulation


  • dacF-spoIIAA-spoIIAB-sigF PubMed
  • spoIIAA-spoIIAB-sigF PubMed
  • Sigma factor

  • dacF: SigF, SigG
  • spoIIAA: SigH
  • Regulation

  • repressed by casamino acids PubMed
  • dacF: expressed during sporulation
  • spoIIAA: expressed early during sporulation
  • expressed under conditions that trigger sporulation (Spo0A) PubMed
  • Regulatory mechanism

  • spoIIAA: activated by Spo0A and repressed by SinR
  • Spo0A: transcription activation PubMed
  • AbrB: transcription repression PubMed
  • Additional information

    Biological materials


    Expression vector

    lacZ fusion

    GFP fusion

    two-hybrid system

    FLAG-tag construct


    Labs working on this gene/protein

  • Charles Moran, Emory University, NC, USA homepage
  • References


    de Hoon MJ(1), Eichenberger P, Vitkup D.

    Hierarchical evolution of the bacterial sporulation network.

    Curr Biol. 2010 Sep 14;20(17):R735-45. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2010.06.031.PMCID: PMC2944226 PMID: 20833318 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

    The SigF regulon

    Overkamp W, Kuipers OP

    Transcriptional Profile of Bacillus subtilis sigF-Mutant during Vegetative Growth

    PLoS One. 2015 Oct 27;10(10):e0141553. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0141553. eCollection 2015. PubMed PMID: 26506528; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4624776.
    Wang ST, Setlow B, Conlon EM, Lyon JL, Imamura D, Sato T, Setlow P, Losick R, Eichenberger P

    The forespore line of gene expression in Bacillus subtilis

    J Mol Biol. 2006 Apr 21;358(1):16-37. Epub 2006 Feb 8. PubMed PMID: 16497325.

    Modeling of SigF activation

    Fengos G, Iber D

    Prediction stability in a data-based, mechanistic model of σF regulation during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis

    Sci Rep. 2013 Sep 25;3:2755. doi: 10.1038/srep02755. PubMed PMID: 24067622; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3783014.
    Iber D

    Inferring Biological Mechanisms by Data-Based Mathematical Modelling: Compartment-Specific Gene Activation during Sporulation in Bacillus subtilis as a Test Case

    Adv Bioinformatics. 2011;2011:124062. doi: 10.1155/2011/124062. Epub 2012 Jan 23. PubMed PMID: 22312331; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3270535.
    Do JH, Nagasaki M, Miyano S

    The systems approach to the prespore-specific activation of sigma factor SigF in Bacillus subtilis

    Biosystems. 2010 Jun;100(3):178-84. doi: 10.1016/j.biosystems.2010.03.002. Epub 2010 Mar 16. PubMed PMID: 20298743.

    Original Publications

    Eswaramoorthy P, Winter PW, Wawrzusin P, York AG, Shroff H, Ramamurthi KS

    Asymmetric division and differential gene expression during a bacterial developmental program requires DivIVA

    PLoS Genet. 2014 Aug 7;10(8):e1004526. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1004526. eCollection 2014 Aug. PubMed PMID: 25101664; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4125091.
    Narula J, Devi SN, Fujita M, Igoshin OA

    Ultrasensitivity of the Bacillus subtilis sporulation decision

    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Dec 11;109(50):E3513-22. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1213974109. Epub 2012 Nov 19. PubMed PMID: 23169620; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3528541.
    Serrano M, Real G, Santos J, Carneiro J, Moran CP Jr, Henriques AO

    A negative feedback loop that limits the ectopic activation of a cell type-specific sporulation sigma factor of Bacillus subtilis

    PLoS Genet. 2011 Sep;7(9):e1002220. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002220. Epub 2011 Sep 15. PubMed PMID: 21935351; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3174212.
    Camp AH, Wang AF, Losick R

    A small protein required for the switch from {sigma}F to {sigma}G during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2011 Jan;193(1):116-24. doi: 10.1128/JB.00949-10. Epub 2010 Oct 29. PubMed PMID: 21037003; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3019954.
    Chumsakul O, Takahashi H, Oshima T, Hishimoto T, Kanaya S, Ogasawara N, Ishikawa S

    Genome-wide binding profiles of the Bacillus subtilis transition state regulator AbrB and its homolog Abh reveals their interactive role in transcriptional regulation

    Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Jan;39(2):414-28. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkq780. Epub 2010 Sep 3. PubMed PMID: 20817675; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3025583.
    Camp AH, Losick R

    A feeding tube model for activation of a cell-specific transcription factor during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis

    Genes Dev. 2009 Apr 15;23(8):1014-24. doi: 10.1101/gad.1781709. PubMed PMID: 19390092; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2675869.
    Karmazyn-Campelli C, Rhayat L, Carballido-López R, Duperrier S, Frandsen N, Stragier P

    How the early sporulation sigma factor sigmaF delays the switch to late development in Bacillus subtilis

    Mol Microbiol. 2008 Mar;67(5):1169-80. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2008.06121.x. Epub 2008 Jan 15. PubMed PMID: 18208527.
    Igoshin OA, Brody MS, Price CW, Savageau MA

    Distinctive topologies of partner-switching signaling networks correlate with their physiological roles

    J Mol Biol. 2007 Jun 22;369(5):1333-52. Epub 2007 Apr 14. PubMed PMID: 17498739; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2727513.
    Igoshin OA, Price CW, Savageau MA

    Signalling network with a bistable hysteretic switch controls developmental activation of the sigma transcription factor in Bacillus subtilis

    Mol Microbiol. 2006 Jul;61(1):165-84. PubMed PMID: 16824103.
    Dworkin J, Losick R

    Developmental commitment in a bacterium

    Cell. 2005 May 6;121(3):401-9. PubMed PMID: 15882622.
    Fujita M, González-Pastor JE, Losick R

    High- and low-threshold genes in the Spo0A regulon of Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2005 Feb;187(4):1357-68. PubMed PMID: 15687200; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC545642.
    Clarkson J, Campbell ID, Yudkin MD

    Efficient regulation of sigmaF, the first sporulation-specific sigma factor in B

    subtilis. J Mol Biol. 2004 Sep 24;342(4):1187-95. PubMed PMID: 15351644.
    Carniol K, Kim TJ, Price CW, Losick R

    Insulation of the sigmaF regulatory system in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2004 Jul;186(13):4390-4. PubMed PMID: 15205443; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC421598.
    Carniol K, Eichenberger P, Losick R

    A threshold mechanism governing activation of the developmental regulatory protein sigma F in Bacillus subtilis

    J Biol Chem. 2004 Apr 9;279(15):14860-70. Epub 2004 Jan 26. PubMed PMID: 14744853.
    Ho MS, Carniol K, Losick R

    Evidence in support of a docking model for the release of the transcription factor sigma F from the antisigma factor SpoIIAB in Bacillus subtilis

    J Biol Chem. 2003 Jun 6;278(23):20898-905. Epub 2003 Apr 3. PubMed PMID: 12676949.
    Mäder U, Homuth G, Scharf C, Büttner K, Bode R, Hecker M

    Transcriptome and proteome analysis of Bacillus subtilis gene expression modulated by amino acid availability

    J Bacteriol. 2002 Aug;184(15):4288-95. PubMed PMID: 12107147; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC135197.
    Kemp JT, Driks A, Losick R

    FtsA mutants of Bacillus subtilis impaired in sporulation

    J Bacteriol. 2002 Jul;184(14):3856-63. PubMed PMID: 12081956; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC135164.
    Dworkin J, Losick R

    Differential gene expression governed by chromosomal spatial asymmetry

    Cell. 2001 Nov 2;107(3):339-46. PubMed PMID: 11701124.
    Pan Q, Garsin DA, Losick R

    Self-reinforcing activation of a cell-specific transcription factor by proteolysis of an anti-sigma factor in B

    subtilis. Mol Cell. 2001 Oct;8(4):873-83. PubMed PMID: 11684022.
    Campbell EA, Darst SA

    The anti-sigma factor SpoIIAB forms a 2:1 complex with sigma(F), contacting multiple conserved regions of the sigma factor

    J Mol Biol. 2000 Jun 30;300(1):17-28. PubMed PMID: 10864495.
    Petersohn A, Engelmann S, Setlow P, Hecker M

    The katX gene of Bacillus subtilis is under dual control of sigmaB and sigmaF

    Mol Gen Genet. 1999 Aug;262(1):173-9. PubMed PMID: 10503549.
    King N, Dreesen O, Stragier P, Pogliano K, Losick R

    Septation, dephosphorylation, and the activation of sigmaF during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis

    Genes Dev. 1999 May 1;13(9):1156-67. PubMed PMID: 10323866; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC316942.
    Frandsen N, Barák I, Karmazyn-Campelli C, Stragier P

    Transient gene asymmetry during sporulation and establishment of cell specificity in Bacillus subtilis

    Genes Dev. 1999 Feb 15;13(4):394-9. PubMed PMID: 10049355; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC316476.
    Garsin DA, Duncan L, Paskowitz DM, Losick R

    The kinase activity of the antisigma factor SpoIIAB is required for activation as well as inhibition of transcription factor sigmaF during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis

    J Mol Biol. 1998 Dec 4;284(3):569-78. PubMed PMID: 9826499.
    Garsin DA, Paskowitz DM, Duncan L, Losick R

    Evidence for common sites of contact between the antisigma factor SpoIIAB and its partners SpoIIAA and the developmental transcription factor sigmaF in Bacillus subtilis

    J Mol Biol. 1998 Dec 4;284(3):557-68. PubMed PMID: 9826498.
    Bagyan I, Casillas-Martinez L, Setlow P

    The katX gene, which codes for the catalase in spores of Bacillus subtilis, is a forespore-specific gene controlled by sigmaF, and KatX is essential for hydrogen peroxide resistance of the germinating spore

    J Bacteriol. 1998 Apr;180(8):2057-62. PubMed PMID: 9555886; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC107130.
    Pogliano K, Hofmeister AE, Losick R

    Disappearance of the sigma E transcription factor from the forespore and the SpoIIE phosphatase from the mother cell contributes to establishment of cell-specific gene expression during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 1997 May;179(10):3331-41. PubMed PMID: 9150232; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC179115.
    Lewis PJ, Magnin T, Errington J

    Compartmentalized distribution of the proteins controlling the prespore-specific transcription factor sigmaF of Bacillus subtilis

    Genes Cells. 1996 Oct;1(10):881-94. PubMed PMID: 9077448.
    Gomez M, Cutting SM

    Expression of the Bacillus subtilis spoIVB gene is under dual sigma F/sigma G control

    Microbiology. 1996 Dec;142 ( Pt 12):3453-7. PubMed PMID: 9004507.
    Feucht A, Magnin T, Yudkin MD, Errington J

    Bifunctional protein required for asymmetric cell division and cell-specific transcription in Bacillus subtilis

    Genes Dev. 1996 Apr 1;10(7):794-803. PubMed PMID: 8846916.
    Decatur AL, Losick R

    Three sites of contact between the Bacillus subtilis transcription factor sigmaF and its antisigma factor SpoIIAB

    Genes Dev. 1996 Sep 15;10(18):2348-58. PubMed PMID: 8824593.
    Alper S, Dufour A, Garsin DA, Duncan L, Losick R

    Role of adenosine nucleotides in the regulation of a stress-response transcription factor in Bacillus subtilis

    J Mol Biol. 1996 Jul 12;260(2):165-77. PubMed PMID: 8764398.
    Duncan L, Alper S, Losick R

    SpoIIAA governs the release of the cell-type specific transcription factor sigma F from its anti-sigma factor SpoIIAB

    J Mol Biol. 1996 Jul 12;260(2):147-64. PubMed PMID: 8764397.
    Decatur A, Losick R

    Identification of additional genes under the control of the transcription factor sigma F of Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 1996 Aug;178(16):5039-41. PubMed PMID: 8759874; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC178293.
    Duncan L, Losick R

    SpoIIAB is an anti-sigma factor that binds to and inhibits transcription by regulatory protein sigma F from Bacillus subtilis

    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Mar 15;90(6):2325-9. PubMed PMID: 8460142; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC46079.
    Min KT, Hilditch CM, Diederich B, Errington J, Yudkin MD

    Sigma F, the first compartment-specific transcription factor of B

    subtilis, is regulated by an anti-sigma factor that is also a protein kinase. Cell. 1993 Aug 27;74(4):735-42. PubMed PMID: 8358793.
    Lewis PJ, Partridge SR, Errington J

    Sigma factors, asymmetry, and the determination of cell fate in Bacillus subtilis

    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Apr 26;91(9):3849-53. PubMed PMID: 8171000; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC43679.
    Alper S, Duncan L, Losick R

    An adenosine nucleotide switch controlling the activity of a cell type-specific transcription factor in B

    subtilis. Cell. 1994 Apr 22;77(2):195-205. PubMed PMID: 8168129.
    Foulger D, Errington J

    Effects of new mutations in the spoIIAB gene of Bacillus subtilis on the regulation of sigma F and sigma G activities

    J Gen Microbiol. 1993 Dec;139(12):3197-203. PubMed PMID: 8126438.
    Schuch R, Piggot PJ

    The dacF-spoIIA operon of Bacillus subtilis, encoding sigma F, is autoregulated

    J Bacteriol. 1994 Jul;176(13):4104-10. PubMed PMID: 8021191; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC205609.
    Harry EJ, Pogliano K, Losick R

    Use of immunofluorescence to visualize cell-specific gene expression during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 1995 Jun;177(12):3386-93. PubMed PMID: 7768847; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC177040.
    Webb CD, Decatur A, Teleman A, Losick R

    Use of green fluorescent protein for visualization of cell-specific gene expression and subcellular protein localization during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 1995 Oct;177(20):5906-11. PubMed PMID: 7592342; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC177417.
    Duncan L, Alper S, Arigoni F, Losick R, Stragier P

    Activation of cell-specific transcription by a serine phosphatase at the site of asymmetric division

    Science. 1995 Oct 27;270(5236):641-4. PubMed PMID: 7570023.
    Errington J, Mandelstam J

    Use of a lacZ gene fusion to determine the dependence pattern of sporulation operon spoIIA in spo mutants of Bacillus subtilis

    J Gen Microbiol. 1986 Nov;132(11):2967-76. PubMed PMID: 3114419.
    Yudkin MD

    The sigma-like product of sporulation gene spoIIAC of Bacillus subtilis is toxic to Escherichia coli

    Mol Gen Genet. 1986 Jan;202(1):55-7. PubMed PMID: 3007937.
    Wu JJ, Howard MG, Piggot PJ

    Regulation of transcription of the Bacillus subtilis spoIIA locus

    J Bacteriol. 1989 Feb;171(2):692-8. PubMed PMID: 2492512; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC209652.
    Schmidt R, Margolis P, Duncan L, Coppolecchia R, Moran CP Jr, Losick R

    Control of developmental transcription factor sigma F by sporulation regulatory proteins SpoIIAA and SpoIIAB in Bacillus subtilis

    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 Dec;87(23):9221-5. PubMed PMID: 2123551; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC55136.
    Margolis P, Driks A, Losick R

    Establishment of cell type by compartmentalized activation of a transcription factor

    Science. 1991 Oct 25;254(5031):562-5. PubMed PMID: 1948031.
    Partridge SR, Foulger D, Errington J

    The role of sigma F in prespore-specific transcription in Bacillus subtilis

    Mol Microbiol. 1991 Mar;5(3):757-67. PubMed PMID: 1904527.
    Illing N, Errington J

    Genetic regulation of morphogenesis in Bacillus subtilis: roles of sigma E and sigma F in prespore engulfment

    J Bacteriol. 1991 May;173(10):3159-69. PubMed PMID: 1902463; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC207910.
    Sun D, Fajardo-Cavazos P, Sussman MD, Tovar-Rojo F, Cabrera-Martinez RM, Setlow P

    Effect of chromosome location of Bacillus subtilis forespore genes on their spo gene dependence and transcription by E sigma F: identification of features of good E sigma F-dependent promoters

    J Bacteriol. 1991 Dec;173(24):7867-74. PubMed PMID: 1744043; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC212578.
    Wu JJ, Schuch R, Piggot PJ

    Characterization of a Bacillus subtilis sporulation operon that includes genes for an RNA polymerase sigma factor and for a putative DD-carboxypeptidase

    J Bacteriol. 1992 Aug;174(15):4885-92. PubMed PMID: 1629150; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC206299.
    York K, Kenney TJ, Satola S, Moran CP Jr, Poth H, Youngman P

    Spo0A controls the sigma A-dependent activation of Bacillus subtilis sporulation-specific transcription unit spoIIE

    J Bacteriol. 1992 Apr;174(8):2648-58. PubMed PMID: 1556084; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC205905.
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