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Categories containing this gene/protein

transcription, sigma factors and their control, sporulation proteins

This gene is a member of the following regulons

AbrB regulon, SigF regulon, SigG regulon, SinR regulon, Spo0A regulon

The SigG regulon


  • Coordinates on the chromosome (coding sequence): 1,605,630 -> 1,606,412
  • The protein

    Catalyzed reaction/ biological activity

    Protein family

  • sigma-70 factor family (according to Swiss-Prot)
  • Paralogous protein(s)

  • SigF
  • Kinetic information




    Effectors of protein activity

  • Gin inhibits SigG activity PubMed
  • the activity of SigG-containing RNA polymerase is modulated by YlyA PubMed
  • Structure



  • SigG-RpoB-RpoC
  • CsfB-SigG PubMed
  • SpoIIAB-SigG PubMed
  • Additional information

    Expression and Regulation


  • spoIIGA-sigE-sigG PubMed
  • sigG PubMed
  • Sigma factor

  • spoIIGA: SigA PubMed
  • sigG: SigF, SigG PubMed
  • Regulation

  • spoIIGA: expressed under conditions that trigger sporulation (Spo0A) PubMed
  • sigG: expressed during sporulation (SigF, SigG) PubMed
  • the mRNA accumulates in a ymdB mutant PubMed
  • Regulatory mechanism

  • repression by SinR
  • Spo0A: transcription activation PubMed
  • AbrB: transcription repression PubMed
  • Additional information

  • the mRNA half-life is about 2.6 min PubMed
  • Biological materials


    Expression vector

    lacZ fusion

    GFP fusion

    two-hybrid system

    FLAG-tag construct


    Labs working on this gene/protein

  • Charles Moran, Emory University, NC, USA homepage
  • References


    de Hoon MJ(1), Eichenberger P, Vitkup D.

    Hierarchical evolution of the bacterial sporulation network.

    Curr Biol. 2010 Sep 14;20(17):R735-45. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2010.06.031.DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2010.06.031 PMCID: PMC2944226 PMID: 20833318 [Indexed for MEDLINE]

    The SigG regulon

    Wang ST(1), Setlow B, Conlon EM, Lyon JL, Imamura D, Sato T, Setlow P, Losick R, Eichenberger P.

    The forespore line of gene expression in Bacillus subtilis.

    J Mol Biol. 2006 Apr 21;358(1):16-37. Epub 2006 Feb 8.

    Original Publications

    Serrano M, Gao J, Bota J, Bate AR, Meisner J, Eichenberger P, Moran CP Jr, Henriques AO

    Dual-specificity anti-sigma factor reinforces control of cell-type specific gene expression in Bacillus subtilis

    PLoS Genet. 2015 Apr 2;11(4):e1005104. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1005104. eCollection 2015 Apr. PubMed PMID: 25835496; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4383634.
    Diethmaier C, Newman JA, Kovács AT, Kaever V, Herzberg C, Rodrigues C, Boonstra M, Kuipers OP, Lewis RJ, Stülke J

    The YmdB phosphodiesterase is a global regulator of late adaptive responses in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2014 Jan;196(2):265-75. doi: 10.1128/JB.00826-13. Epub 2013 Oct 25. PubMed PMID: 24163345; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3911264.
    Traag BA, Ramirez-Peralta A, Wang Erickson AF, Setlow P, Losick R

    A novel RNA polymerase-binding protein controlling genes involved in spore germination in Bacillus subtilis

    Mol Microbiol. 2013 Jul;89(1):113-22. doi: 10.1111/mmi.12262. Epub 2013 Jun 5. PubMed PMID: 23678950; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3694343.
    Regan G, Itaya M, Piggot PJ

    Coupling of σG activation to completion of engulfment during sporulation of Bacillus subtilis survives large perturbations to DNA translocation and replication

    J Bacteriol. 2012 Nov;194(22):6264-71. doi: 10.1128/JB.01470-12. Epub 2012 Sep 14. PubMed PMID: 22984259; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3486369.
    Serrano M, Real G, Santos J, Carneiro J, Moran CP Jr, Henriques AO

    A negative feedback loop that limits the ectopic activation of a cell type-specific sporulation sigma factor of Bacillus subtilis

    PLoS Genet. 2011 Sep;7(9):e1002220. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002220. Epub 2011 Sep 15. PubMed PMID: 21935351; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3174212.
    Chumsakul O, Takahashi H, Oshima T, Hishimoto T, Kanaya S, Ogasawara N, Ishikawa S

    Genome-wide binding profiles of the Bacillus subtilis transition state regulator AbrB and its homolog Abh reveals their interactive role in transcriptional regulation

    Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Jan;39(2):414-28. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkq780. Epub 2010 Sep 3. PubMed PMID: 20817675; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3025583.
    Rhayat L, Duperrier S, Carballido-López R, Pellegrini O, Stragier P

    Genetic dissection of an inhibitor of the sporulation sigma factor sigma(G)

    J Mol Biol. 2009 Jul 31;390(5):835-44. doi: 10.1016/j.jmb.2009.05.073. Epub 2009 Jun 1. PubMed PMID: 19497328.
    Camp AH, Losick R

    A feeding tube model for activation of a cell-specific transcription factor during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis

    Genes Dev. 2009 Apr 15;23(8):1014-24. doi: 10.1101/gad.1781709. PubMed PMID: 19390092; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2675869.
    Serrano M, Vieira F, Moran CP Jr, Henriques AO

    Processing of a membrane protein required for cell-to-cell signaling during endospore formation in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2008 Dec;190(23):7786-96. doi: 10.1128/JB.00715-08. Epub 2008 Sep 26. PubMed PMID: 18820020; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2583626.
    Camp AH, Losick R

    A novel pathway of intercellular signalling in Bacillus subtilis involves a protein with similarity to a component of type III secretion channels

    Mol Microbiol. 2008 Jul;69(2):402-17. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2008.06289.x. PubMed PMID: 18485064; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2574792.
    Igarashi T, Setlow P

    Transcription of the Bacillus subtilis gerK operon, which encodes a spore germinant receptor, and comparison with that of operons encoding other germinant receptors

    J Bacteriol. 2006 Jun;188(11):4131-6. PubMed PMID: 16707705; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1482912.
    Evans L, Feucht A, Errington J

    Genetic analysis of the Bacillus subtilis sigG promoter, which controls the sporulation-specific transcription factor sigma G

    Microbiology. 2004 Jul;150(Pt 7):2277-87. PubMed PMID: 15256570.
    Serrano M, Neves A, Soares CM, Moran CP Jr, Henriques AO

    Role of the anti-sigma factor SpoIIAB in regulation of sigmaG during Bacillus subtilis sporulation

    J Bacteriol. 2004 Jun;186(12):4000-13. PubMed PMID: 15175314; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC419951.
    Evans L, Clarkson J, Yudkin MD, Errington J, Feucht A

    Analysis of the interaction between the transcription factor sigmaG and the anti-sigma factor SpoIIAB of Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2003 Aug;185(15):4615-9. PubMed PMID: 12867473; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC165760.
    Serrano M, Côrte L, Opdyke J, Moran CP Jr, Henriques AO

    Expression of spoIIIJ in the prespore is sufficient for activation of sigma G and for sporulation in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2003 Jul;185(13):3905-17. PubMed PMID: 12813085; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC161587.
    Cabrera-Hernandez A, Setlow P

    Analysis of the regulation and function of five genes encoding small, acid-soluble spore proteins of Bacillus subtilis

    Gene. 2000 May 2;248(1-2):169-81. PubMed PMID: 10806362.
    Bagyan I, Setlow B, Setlow P

    New small, acid-soluble proteins unique to spores of Bacillus subtilis: identification of the coding genes and regulation and function of two of these genes

    J Bacteriol. 1998 Dec;180(24):6704-12. PubMed PMID: 9852018; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC107777.
    Fabret C, Hoch JA

    A two-component signal transduction system essential for growth of Bacillus subtilis: implications for anti-infective therapy

    J Bacteriol. 1998 Dec;180(23):6375-83. PubMed PMID: 9829949; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC107725.
    Gomez M, Cutting SM

    Expression of the Bacillus subtilis spoIVB gene is under dual sigma F/sigma G control

    Microbiology. 1996 Dec;142 ( Pt 12):3453-7. PubMed PMID: 9004507.
    Partridge SR, Errington J

    The importance of morphological events and intercellular interactions in the regulation of prespore-specific gene expression during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis

    Mol Microbiol. 1993 May;8(5):945-55. PubMed PMID: 8355618.
    Foulger D, Errington J

    Effects of new mutations in the spoIIAB gene of Bacillus subtilis on the regulation of sigma F and sigma G activities

    J Gen Microbiol. 1993 Dec;139(12):3197-203. PubMed PMID: 8126438.
    Schmidt R, Decatur AL, Rather PN, Moran CP Jr, Losick R

    Bacillus subtilis lon protease prevents inappropriate transcription of genes under the control of the sporulation transcription factor sigma G

    J Bacteriol. 1994 Nov;176(21):6528-37. PubMed PMID: 7961403; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC197006.
    Sun DX, Stragier P, Setlow P

    Identification of a new sigma-factor involved in compartmentalized gene expression during sporulation of Bacillus subtilis

    Genes Dev. 1989 Feb;3(2):141-9. PubMed PMID: 2497051.
    Nakatani Y, Nicholson WL, Neitzke KD, Setlow P, Freese E

    Sigma-G RNA polymerase controls forespore-specific expression of the glucose dehydrogenase operon in Bacillus subtilis

    Nucleic Acids Res. 1989 Feb 11;17(3):999-1017. PubMed PMID: 2493633; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC331718.
    Jonas RM, Weaver EA, Kenney TJ, Moran CP Jr, Haldenwang WG

    The Bacillus subtilis spoIIG operon encodes both sigma E and a gene necessary for sigma E activation

    J Bacteriol. 1988 Feb;170(2):507-11. PubMed PMID: 2448286; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC210682.
    Illing N, Errington J

    Genetic regulation of morphogenesis in Bacillus subtilis: roles of sigma E and sigma F in prespore engulfment

    J Bacteriol. 1991 May;173(10):3159-69. PubMed PMID: 1902463; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC207910.
    Sun DX, Cabrera-Martinez RM, Setlow P

    Control of transcription of the Bacillus subtilis spoIIIG gene, which codes for the forespore-specific transcription factor sigma G

    J Bacteriol. 1991 May;173(9):2977-84. PubMed PMID: 1902213; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC207881.
    Fajardo-Cavazos P, Tovar-Rojo F, Setlow P

    Effect of promoter mutations and upstream deletions on the expression of genes coding for small, acid-soluble spore proteins of Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 1991 Mar;173(6):2011-6. PubMed PMID: 1900507; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC207735.
    Errington J, Appleby L, Daniel RA, Goodfellow H, Partridge SR, Yudkin MD

    Structure and function of the spoIIIJ gene of Bacillus subtilis: a vegetatively expressed gene that is essential for sigma G activity at an intermediate stage of sporulation

    J Gen Microbiol. 1992 Dec;138(12):2609-18. PubMed PMID: 1487728.
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