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Categories containing this gene/protein

transcription, sigma factors and their control

This gene is a member of the following regulons

AbrB regulon

The SigH regulon


  • Coordinates on the chromosome (coding sequence): 116,600 -> 117,256
  • The protein

    Catalyzed reaction/ biological activity

    Protein family

  • sigma-70 factor family (according to Swiss-Prot)
  • Paralogous protein(s)

    Kinetic information




    Effectors of protein activity




  • (RpoB-RpoC)-SigH, interaction is strongly reduced at high osmolarity PubMed
  • Additional information

  • the poor interaction of SigH with the RNA polymerase is responsible for the poor sporulation at high salinity, this phenotype can be partially suppressed by specific mutations in SigH PubMed
  • Expression and Regulation


  • sigH (DBTBS)
  • Sigma factor

  • SigA PubMed
  • Regulation

  • repressed during logrithmic growth (AbrB) PubMed
  • Regulatory mechanism

  • AbrB: transcription repression PubMed
  • Additional information

    Biological materials


    Expression vector

    lacZ fusion

    GFP fusion

    two-hybrid system

    FLAG-tag construct


    Labs working on this gene/protein

  • Charles Moran, Emory University, NC, USA homepage
  • References


    de Hoon MJ(1), Eichenberger P, Vitkup D.

    Hierarchical evolution of the bacterial sporulation network.

    Curr Biol. 2010 Sep 14;20(17):R735-45. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2010.06.031.DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2010.06.031 PMCID: PMC2944226 PMID: 20833318 [Indexed for MEDLINE]

    The SigH regulon

    Britton RA(1), Eichenberger P, Gonzalez-Pastor JE, Fawcett P, Monson R, Losick R, Grossman AD.

    Genome-wide analysis of the stationary-phase sigma factor (sigma-H) regulon of Bacillus subtilis.

    J Bacteriol. 2002 Sep;184(17):4881-90.

    Original Publications

    Widderich N, Rodrigues CD, Commichau FM, Fischer KE, Ramirez-Guadiana FH, Rudner DZ, Bremer E

    Salt-sensitivity of σ(H) and Spo0A prevents sporulation of Bacillus subtilis at high osmolarity avoiding death during cellular differentiation

    Mol Microbiol. 2016 Apr;100(1):108-24. doi: 10.1111/mmi.13304. Epub 2016 Jan 18. PubMed PMID: 26712348; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4992981.
    de Jong IG, Veening JW, Kuipers OP

    Heterochronic phosphorelay gene expression as a source of heterogeneity in Bacillus subtilis spore formation

    J Bacteriol. 2010 Apr;192(8):2053-67. doi: 10.1128/JB.01484-09. Epub 2010 Feb 12. PubMed PMID: 20154131; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2849452.
    Eymann C, Hecker M

    Induction of sigma(B)-dependent general stress genes by amino acid starvation in a spo0H mutant of Bacillus subtilis

    FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2001 May 30;199(2):221-7. PubMed PMID: 11377871.
    Buckner CM, Moran CP Jr

    A region in Bacillus subtilis sigmaH required for Spo0A-dependent promoter activity

    J Bacteriol. 1998 Sep;180(18):4987-90. PubMed PMID: 9733708; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC107530.
    Levin PA, Losick R

    Transcription factor Spo0A switches the localization of the cell division protein FtsZ from a medial to a bipolar pattern in Bacillus subtilis

    Genes Dev. 1996 Feb 15;10(4):478-88. PubMed PMID: 8600030.
    Strauch MA

    Delineation of AbrB-binding sites on the Bacillus subtilis spo0H, kinB, ftsAZ, and pbpE promoters and use of a derived homology to identify a previously unsuspected binding site in the bsuB1 methylase promote

    J Bacteriol. 1995 Dec;177(23):6999-7002. PubMed PMID: 7592498; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC177573.
    Johnson WC, Moran CP Jr, Losick R

    Two RNA polymerase sigma factors from Bacillus subtilis discriminate between overlapping promoters for a developmentally regulated gene

    Nature. 1983 Apr 28;302(5911):800-4. PubMed PMID: 6405278.
    Carter HL 3rd, Wang LF, Doi RH, Moran CP Jr

    rpoD operon promoter used by sigma H-RNA polymerase in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 1988 Apr;170(4):1617-21. PubMed PMID: 3127379; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC211009.
    Ray C, Igo M, Shafer W, Losick R, Moran CP Jr

    Suppression of ctc promoter mutations in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 1988 Feb;170(2):900-7. PubMed PMID: 3123466; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC210740.
    Zuber P, Losick R

    spoOH: a developmental regulatory gene for promoter utilization in Bacillus subtilis

    Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1985;50:483-8. PubMed PMID: 3007003.
    Price VA, Feavers IM, Moir A

    Role of sigma H in expression of the fumarase gene (citG) in vegetative cells of Bacillus subtilis 168

    J Bacteriol. 1989 Nov;171(11):5933-9. PubMed PMID: 2509423; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC210457.
    Tatti KM, Carter HL 3rd, Moir A, Moran CP Jr

    Sigma H-directed transcription of citG in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 1989 Nov;171(11):5928-32. PubMed PMID: 2509422; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC210456.
    Jaacks KJ, Healy J, Losick R, Grossman AD

    Identification and characterization of genes controlled by the sporulation-regulatory gene spo0H in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 1989 Aug;171(8):4121-9. PubMed PMID: 2502532; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC210181.
    Zuber P, Healy J, Carter HL 3rd, Cutting S, Moran CP Jr, Losick R

    Mutation changing the specificity of an RNA polymerase sigma factor

    J Mol Biol. 1989 Apr 20;206(4):605-14. PubMed PMID: 2500529.
    Daniels D, Zuber P, Losick R

    Two amino acids in an RNA polymerase sigma factor involved in the recognition of adjacent base pairs in the -10 region of a cognate promoter

    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 Oct;87(20):8075-9. PubMed PMID: 2122453; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC54895.
    Bai U, Lewandoski M, Dubnau E, Smith I

    Temporal regulation of the Bacillus subtilis early sporulation gene spo0F

    J Bacteriol. 1990 Sep;172(9):5432-9. PubMed PMID: 2118512; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC213209.
    Healy J, Weir J, Smith I, Losick R

    Post-transcriptional control of a sporulation regulatory gene encoding transcription factor sigma H in Bacillus subtilis

    Mol Microbiol. 1991 Feb;5(2):477-87. PubMed PMID: 1904128.
    Weir J, Predich M, Dubnau E, Nair G, Smith I

    Regulation of spo0H, a gene coding for the Bacillus subtilis sigma H factor

    J Bacteriol. 1991 Jan;173(2):521-9. PubMed PMID: 1898930; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC207041.
    Bird T, Burbulys D, Wu JJ, Strauch MA, Hoch JA, Spiegelman GB

    The effect of supercoiling on the in vitro transcription of the spoIIA operon from Bacillus subtilis

    Biochimie. 1992 Jul-Aug;74(7-8):627-34. PubMed PMID: 1391042.
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