SubtiBank SubtiBank

Categories containing this gene/protein

transcription, sigma factors and their control, cell envelope stress proteins (controlled by SigM, V, W, X, Y), membrane proteins

This gene is a member of the following regulons

SigX regulon, YvrHb regulon

The SigX regulon


  • Coordinates on the chromosome (coding sequence): 2,414,627 -> 2,415,211
  • The protein

    Catalyzed reaction/ biological activity

    Protein family

  • ECF subfamily (according to Swiss-Prot)
  • Paralogous protein(s)

    Kinetic information




    Effectors of protein activity



  • cell membrane (according to Swiss-Prot)
  • Interactions

  • RsiX-SigX PubMed
  • SigX-RpoB-RpoC
  • Additional information

  • Expression of the SigX regulon in increased in ugtP mutants PubMed
  • Expression and Regulation


  • sigX-rsiX PubMed
  • Sigma factor

  • SigA PubMed, SigX PubMed
  • Regulation

  • induced in the stationary phase due to the internal production of toxic peptides (SdpC, SkfA) PubMed
  • induced by glucose PubMed
  • Regulatory mechanism

  • activated by YvrHb PubMed
  • Additional information

    Biological materials


  • MGNA-A179 (sigX::erm), available at the NBRP B. subtilis, Japan
  • 1A901 ( sigX::spec), PubMed, available at BGSC
  • Expression vector

    lacZ fusion

    GFP fusion

    two-hybrid system

    FLAG-tag construct


    Labs working on this gene/protein



    Helmann JD

    Bacillus subtilis extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors and defense of the cell envelope

    Curr Opin Microbiol. 2016 Apr;30:122-32. doi: 10.1016/j.mib.2016.02.002. Epub 2016 Feb 20. Review. PubMed PMID: 26901131; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4821709.
    Souza BM, Castro TL, Carvalho RD, Seyffert N, Silva A, Miyoshi A, Azevedo V

    σ(ECF) factors of gram-positive bacteria: a focus on Bacillus subtilis and the CMNR group

    Virulence. 2014 Jul 1;5(5):587-600. doi: 10.4161/viru.29514. Epub 2014 Jun 12. Review. PubMed PMID: 24921931; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4105308.

    The SigX regulon

    Mascher T, Hachmann AB, Helmann JD

    Regulatory overlap and functional redundancy among Bacillus subtilis extracytoplasmic function sigma factors

    J Bacteriol. 2007 Oct;189(19):6919-27. Epub 2007 Aug 3. PubMed PMID: 17675383; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2045236.
    Turner MS, Helmann JD

    Mutations in multidrug efflux homologs, sugar isomerases, and antimicrobial biosynthesis genes differentially elevate activity of the sigma(X) and sigma(W) factors in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2000 Sep;182(18):5202-10. PubMed PMID: 10960106; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC94670.
    Huang X, Fredrick KL, Helmann JD

    Promoter recognition by Bacillus subtilis sigmaW: autoregulation and partial overlap with the sigmaX regulon

    J Bacteriol. 1998 Aug;180(15):3765-70. PubMed PMID: 9683469; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC107356.

    Other original publications

    Ogura M, Asai K

    Glucose Induces ECF Sigma Factor Genes, sigX and sigM, Independent of Cognate Anti-sigma Factors through Acetylation of CshA in Bacillus subtilis

    Front Microbiol. 2016 Nov 29;7:1918. eCollection 2016. PubMed PMID: 27965645; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5126115.
    Guzina J, Djordjevic M

    Promoter Recognition by Extracytoplasmic Function σ Factors: Analyzing DNA and Protein Interaction Motifs

    J Bacteriol. 2016 Jun 27;198(14):1927-38. doi: 10.1128/JB.00244-16. Print 2016 Jul 15. PubMed PMID: 27137497; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4936102.
    Höfler C, Heckmann J, Fritsch A, Popp P, Gebhard S, Fritz G, Mascher T

    Cannibalism stress response in Bacillus subtilis

    Microbiology. 2016 Jan;162(1):164-76. doi: 10.1099/mic.0.000176. Epub 2015 Sep 11. PubMed PMID: 26364265.
    Hashimoto M, Seki T, Matsuoka S, Hara H, Asai K, Sadaie Y, Matsumoto K

    Induction of extracytoplasmic function sigma factors in Bacillus subtilis cells with defects in lipoteichoic acid synthesis

    Microbiology. 2013 Jan;159(Pt 1):23-35. doi: 10.1099/mic.0.063420-0. Epub 2012 Oct 25. PubMed PMID: 23103977.
    Matsuoka S, Chiba M, Tanimura Y, Hashimoto M, Hara H, Matsumoto K

    Abnormal morphology of Bacillus subtilis ugtP mutant cells lacking glucolipids

    Genes Genet Syst. 2011;86(5):295-304. PubMed PMID: 22362028.
    Luo Y, Asai K, Sadaie Y, Helmann JD

    Transcriptomic and phenotypic characterization of a Bacillus subtilis strain without extracytoplasmic function σ factors

    J Bacteriol. 2010 Nov;192(21):5736-45. doi: 10.1128/JB.00826-10. Epub 2010 Sep 3. PubMed PMID: 20817771; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2953670.
    Murray EJ, Strauch MA, Stanley-Wall NR

    SigmaX is involved in controlling Bacillus subtilis biofilm architecture through the AbrB homologue Abh

    J Bacteriol. 2009 Nov;191(22):6822-32. doi: 10.1128/JB.00618-09. Epub 2009 Sep 18. PubMed PMID: 19767430; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2772499.
    Luo Y, Helmann JD

    Extracytoplasmic function sigma factors with overlapping promoter specificity regulate sublancin production in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2009 Aug;191(15):4951-8. doi: 10.1128/JB.00549-09. Epub 2009 May 22. PubMed PMID: 19465659; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2715738.
    Eiamphungporn W, Helmann JD

    Extracytoplasmic function sigma factors regulate expression of the Bacillus subtilis yabE gene via a cis-acting antisense RNA

    J Bacteriol. 2009 Feb;191(3):1101-5. doi: 10.1128/JB.01530-08. Epub 2008 Dec 1. PubMed PMID: 19047346; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2632094.
    Serizawa M, Kodama K, Yamamoto H, Kobayashi K, Ogasawara N, Sekiguchi J

    Functional analysis of the YvrGHb two-component system of Bacillus subtilis: identification of the regulated genes by DNA microarray and northern blot analyses

    Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2005 Nov;69(11):2155-69. PubMed PMID: 16306698.
    Yoshimura M, Asai K, Sadaie Y, Yoshikawa H

    Interaction of Bacillus subtilis extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors with the N-terminal regions of their potential anti-sigma factors

    Microbiology. 2004 Mar;150(Pt 3):591-9. PubMed PMID: 14993308.
    Cao M, Helmann JD

    The Bacillus subtilis extracytoplasmic-function sigmaX factor regulates modification of the cell envelope and resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides

    J Bacteriol. 2004 Feb;186(4):1136-46. PubMed PMID: 14762009; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC344218.
    Mascher T, Margulis NG, Wang T, Ye RW, Helmann JD

    Cell wall stress responses in Bacillus subtilis: the regulatory network of the bacitracin stimulon

    Mol Microbiol. 2003 Dec;50(5):1591-604. PubMed PMID: 14651641.
    Cao M, Helmann JD

    Regulation of the Bacillus subtilis bcrC bacitracin resistance gene by two extracytoplasmic function sigma factors

    J Bacteriol. 2002 Nov;184(22):6123-9. PubMed PMID: 12399481; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC151963.
    Qiu J, Helmann JD

    The -10 region is a key promoter specificity determinant for the Bacillus subtilis extracytoplasmic-function sigma factors sigma(X) and sigma(W)

    J Bacteriol. 2001 Mar;183(6):1921-7. PubMed PMID: 11222589; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC95086.
    Huang X, Helmann JD

    Identification of target promoters for the Bacillus subtilis sigma X factor using a consensus-directed search

    J Mol Biol. 1998 May 29;279(1):165-73. PubMed PMID: 9636707.
    Brutsche S, Braun V

    SigX of Bacillus subtilis replaces the ECF sigma factor fecI of Escherichia coli and is inhibited by RsiX

    Mol Gen Genet. 1997 Oct;256(4):416-25. PubMed PMID: 9393439.
    Huang X, Decatur A, Sorokin A, Helmann JD

    The Bacillus subtilis sigma(X) protein is an extracytoplasmic function sigma factor contributing to survival at high temperature

    J Bacteriol. 1997 May;179(9):2915-21. PubMed PMID: 9139908; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC179054.
    Azevedo V, Sorokin A, Ehrlich SD, Serror P

    The transcriptional organization of the Bacillus subtilis 168 chromosome region between the spoVAF and serA genetic loci

    Mol Microbiol. 1993 Oct;10(2):397-405. PubMed PMID: 7934830.
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