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Categories containing this gene/protein

transcription factors and their control, sporulation proteins

This gene is a member of the following regulons

SigE regulon

The SpoIIID regulon


  • Coordinates on the chromosome (coding sequence): 3,748,421 -> 3,748,702
  • The protein

    Catalyzed reaction/ biological activity

  • binds its DNA targets as a monomeric protein (possible due to the two DNA-binding motifs) PubMed
  • Protein family

    Paralogous protein(s)

    Kinetic information


  • two DNA-binding regions: HTH at the N-terminus and a basic region near the C-terminus PubMed
  • Modification


    Effectors of protein activity


  • 2L0K (complex with DNA)
  • Localization


    Additional information

    Expression and Regulation


  • usd-spoIIID-mbl PubMed
  • Sigma factor

  • SigE PubMed
  • Regulation

  • expressed early during sporulation in the mother cell (SigE) PubMed
  • Regulatory mechanism

    Additional information

    Biological materials


    Expression vector

    lacZ fusion

    GFP fusion

    two-hybrid system

    FLAG-tag construct


    Labs working on this gene/protein


    Chen B, Himes P, Liu Y, Zhang Y, Lu Z, Liu A, Yan H, Kroos L

    Structure of bacterial transcription factor SpoIIID and evidence for a novel mode of DNA binding

    J Bacteriol. 2014 Jun;196(12):2131-42. doi: 10.1128/JB.01486-13. Epub 2014 Feb 28. PubMed PMID: 24584501; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4054184.
    Ebmeier SE, Tan IS, Clapham KR, Ramamurthi KS

    Small proteins link coat and cortex assembly during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis

    Mol Microbiol. 2012 May;84(4):682-96. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2012.08052.x. Epub 2012 Apr 18. PubMed PMID: 22463703; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4547488.
    Himes P, McBryant SJ, Kroos L

    Two regions of Bacillus subtilis transcription factor SpoIIID allow a monomer to bind DNA

    J Bacteriol. 2010 Mar;192(6):1596-606. doi: 10.1128/JB.01506-09. Epub 2010 Jan 8. PubMed PMID: 20061473; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2832518.
    Wang L, Perpich J, Driks A, Kroos L

    One perturbation of the mother cell gene regulatory network suppresses the effects of another during sporulation of Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2007 Dec;189(23):8467-73. Epub 2007 Sep 21. PubMed PMID: 17890309; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2168946.
    Guillot C, Moran CP Jr

    Essential internal promoter in the spoIIIA locus of Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2007 Oct;189(20):7181-9. Epub 2007 Aug 10. PubMed PMID: 17693505; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2168449.
    Wang L, Perpich J, Driks A, Kroos L

    Maintaining the transcription factor SpoIIID level late during sporulation causes spore defects in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2007 Oct;189(20):7302-9. Epub 2007 Aug 10. PubMed PMID: 17693499; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2168458.
    Eichenberger P, Fujita M, Jensen ST, Conlon EM, Rudner DZ, Wang ST, Ferguson C, Haga K, Sato T, Liu JS, Losick R

    The program of gene transcription for a single differentiating cell type during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis

    PLoS Biol. 2004 Oct;2(10):e328. Epub 2004 Sep 21. PubMed PMID: 15383836; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC517825.
    Ichikawa H, Kroos L

    Combined action of two transcription factors regulates genes encoding spore coat proteins of Bacillus subtilis

    J Biol Chem. 2000 May 5;275(18):13849-55. PubMed PMID: 10788508.
    Decatur A, McMurry MT, Kunkel BN, Losick R

    Translation of the mRNA for the sporulation gene spoIIID of Bacillus subtilis is dependent upon translation of a small upstream open reading frame

    J Bacteriol. 1997 Feb;179(4):1324-8. PubMed PMID: 9023218; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC178832.
    Zhang B, Daniel RA, Errington J, Kroos L

    Bacillus subtilis SpoIIID protein binds to two sites in the spoVD promoter and represses transcription by sigmaE RNA polymerase

    J Bacteriol. 1997 Feb;179(3):972-5. PubMed PMID: 9006059; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC178786.
    Levin PA, Fan N, Ricca E, Driks A, Losick R, Cutting S

    An unusually small gene required for sporulation by Bacillus subtilis

    Mol Microbiol. 1993 Aug;9(4):761-71. PubMed PMID: 8231808.
    Halberg R, Kroos L

    Sporulation regulatory protein SpoIIID from Bacillus subtilis activates and represses transcription by both mother-cell-specific forms of RNA polymerase

    J Mol Biol. 1994 Oct 28;243(3):425-36. PubMed PMID: 7966271.
    Halberg R, Oke V, Kroos L

    Effects of Bacillus subtilis sporulation regulatory protein SpoIIID on transcription by sigma K RNA polymerase in vivo and in vitro

    J Bacteriol. 1995 Apr;177(7):1888-91. PubMed PMID: 7896717; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC176822.
    Abhayawardhane Y, Stewart GC

    Bacillus subtilis possesses a second determinant with extensive sequence similarity to the Escherichia coli mreB morphogene

    J Bacteriol. 1995 Feb;177(3):765-73. PubMed PMID: 7836311; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC176655.
    Kunkel B, Kroos L, Poth H, Youngman P, Losick R

    Temporal and spatial control of the mother-cell regulatory gene spoIIID of Bacillus subtilis

    Genes Dev. 1989 Nov;3(11):1735-44. PubMed PMID: 2514119.
    Stevens CM, Errington J

    Differential gene expression during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis: structure and regulation of the spoIIID gene

    Mol Microbiol. 1990 Apr;4(4):543-51. PubMed PMID: 2112673.
    Cutting S, Driks A, Schmidt R, Kunkel B, Losick R

    Forespore-specific transcription of a gene in the signal transduction pathway that governs Pro-sigma K processing in Bacillus subtilis

    Genes Dev. 1991 Mar;5(3):456-66. PubMed PMID: 1900494.
    Tatti KM, Jones CH, Moran CP Jr

    Genetic evidence for interaction of sigma E with the spoIIID promoter in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 1991 Dec;173(24):7828-33. PubMed PMID: 1744038; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC212573.
    Zheng LB, Losick R

    Cascade regulation of spore coat gene expression in Bacillus subtilis

    J Mol Biol. 1990 Apr 20;212(4):645-60. PubMed PMID: 1691789.
    Halberg R(1), Kroos L.

    Fate of the SpoIIID switch protein during Bacillus subtilis sporulation depends on the mother-cell sigma factor, sigma K.

    J Mol Biol. 1992 Dec 5;228(3):840-9.
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