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Categories containing this gene/protein

transcription, sigma factors and their control, sporulation proteins, membrane proteins

This gene is a member of the following regulons

GerE regulon, SigE regulon, SigK regulon, SpoIIID regulon, ScoC regulon

The SigK regulon


  • Coordinates on the chromosome (coding sequence): 2,652,993 -> 2,653,463
  • The protein

    Catalyzed reaction/ biological activity

    Protein family

  • sigma-70 factor family (according to Swiss-Prot)
  • Paralogous protein(s)

    Kinetic information




    Effectors of protein activity




  • SpoIVFB-proSigK PubMed
  • SigK-(RpoB-RpoC)
  • Additional information

    Expression and Regulation


  • sigK (composed of spoIVCB-spoIIIC) PubMed
  • Sigma factor

  • SigE PubMed, SigK PubMed
  • Regulation

  • expressed during sporulation in the mother cell (SigE, SigK, GerE, SpoIIID) PubMed
  • Regulatory mechanism

  • GerE: transcription repression PubMed
  • SpoIIID: transcription activation PubMed
  • ScoC: transcription repression PubMed
  • Additional information

  • SigK is activated by processing of membrane-bound pro-SigK by the SpoIVFB metalloprotease PubMed
  • spoIVCB and spoIIIC form a composite gene in the mother cell during sporulation by excising the intervening DNA sequence.
  • Biological materials


    Expression vector

    lacZ fusion

    GFP fusion

    two-hybrid system

    FLAG-tag construct


    Labs working on this gene/protein

  • Arthur Aronson, Purdue University, West Lafayette, USA homepage
  • Charles Moran, Emory University, NC, USA homepage
  • References


    Chen G, Zhang X

    New insights into S2P signaling cascades: regulation, variation, and conservation

    Protein Sci. 2010 Nov;19(11):2015-30. doi: 10.1002/pro.496. Review. PubMed PMID: 20836086; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3005775.
    de Hoon MJ, Eichenberger P, Vitkup D

    Hierarchical evolution of the bacterial sporulation network

    Curr Biol. 2010 Sep 14;20(17):R735-45. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2010.06.031. Review. PubMed PMID: 20833318; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2944226.

    The SigK regulon

    Kodama T, Matsubayashi T, Yanagihara T, Komoto H, Ara K, Ozaki K, Kuwana R, Imamura D, Takamatsu H, Watabe K, Sekiguchi J

    A novel small protein of Bacillus subtilis involved in spore germination and spore coat assembly

    Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2011;75(6):1119-28. Epub 2011 Jun 13. PubMed PMID: 21670523.
    Silvaggi JM, Perkins JB, Losick R

    Genes for small, noncoding RNAs under sporulation control in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2006 Jan;188(2):532-41. PubMed PMID: 16385044; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1347314.
    Eichenberger P, Fujita M, Jensen ST, Conlon EM, Rudner DZ, Wang ST, Ferguson C, Haga K, Sato T, Liu JS, Losick R

    The program of gene transcription for a single differentiating cell type during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis

    PLoS Biol. 2004 Oct;2(10):e328. Epub 2004 Sep 21. PubMed PMID: 15383836; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC517825.

    Original Publications

    Zhang Y, Halder S, Kerr RA, Parrell D, Ruotolo B, Kroos L

    Complex Formed between Intramembrane Metalloprotease SpoIVFB and Its Substrate, Pro-σK

    J Biol Chem. 2016 May 6;291(19):10347-62. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M116.715508. Epub 2016 Mar 7. PubMed PMID: 26953342; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4858981.
    Yan J, Zou W, Fang J, Huang X, Gao F, He Z, Zhang K, Zhao N

    Eukaryote-like Ser/Thr protein kinase PrkA modulates sporulation via regulating the transcriptional factor σ(K) in Bacillus subtilis

    Front Microbiol. 2015 Apr 30;6:382. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2015.00382. eCollection 2015. PubMed PMID: 25983726; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4415436.
    Zhang Y, Luethy PM, Zhou R, Kroos L

    Residues in conserved loops of intramembrane metalloprotease SpoIVFB interact with residues near the cleavage site in pro-σK

    J Bacteriol. 2013 Nov;195(21):4936-46. doi: 10.1128/JB.00807-13. Epub 2013 Aug 30. PubMed PMID: 23995631; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3807480.
    Zhou R, Chen K, Xiang X, Gu L, Kroos L

    Features of Pro-σK important for cleavage by SpoIVFB, an intramembrane metalloprotease

    J Bacteriol. 2013 Jun;195(12):2793-806. doi: 10.1128/JB.00229-13. Epub 2013 Apr 12. PubMed PMID: 23585539; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3697244.
    Zhou R, Cusumano C, Sui D, Garavito RM, Kroos L

    Intramembrane proteolytic cleavage of a membrane-tethered transcription factor by a metalloprotease depends on ATP

    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Sep 22;106(38):16174-9. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0901455106. Epub 2009 Sep 2. PubMed PMID: 19805276; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2752518.
    Wang L, Perpich J, Driks A, Kroos L

    One perturbation of the mother cell gene regulatory network suppresses the effects of another during sporulation of Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2007 Dec;189(23):8467-73. Epub 2007 Sep 21. PubMed PMID: 17890309; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2168946.
    Ferguson CC, Camp AH, Losick R

    gerT, a newly discovered germination gene under the control of the sporulation transcription factor sigmaK in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2007 Nov;189(21):7681-9. Epub 2007 Aug 24. PubMed PMID: 17720779; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2168713.
    Pan Q, Losick R, Rudner DZ

    A second PDZ-containing serine protease contributes to activation of the sporulation transcription factor sigmaK in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2003 Oct;185(20):6051-6. PubMed PMID: 14526016; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC225033.
    Kuwana R, Yamamura S, Ikejiri H, Kobayashi K, Ogasawara N, Asai K, Sadaie Y, Takamatsu H, Watabe K

    Bacillus subtilis spoVIF (yjcC) gene, involved in coat assembly and spore resistance

    Microbiology. 2003 Oct;149(Pt 10):3011-21. PubMed PMID: 14523132.
    Rudner DZ, Losick R

    A sporulation membrane protein tethers the pro-sigmaK processing enzyme to its inhibitor and dictates its subcellular localization

    Genes Dev. 2002 Apr 15;16(8):1007-18. PubMed PMID: 11959848; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC152351.
    Wakeley PR, Dorazi R, Hoa NT, Bowyer JR, Cutting SM

    Proteolysis of SpolVB is a critical determinant in signalling of Pro-sigmaK processing in Bacillus subtilis

    Mol Microbiol. 2000 Jun;36(6):1336-48. PubMed PMID: 10931284.
    Rudner DZ, Fawcett P, Losick R

    A family of membrane-embedded metalloproteases involved in regulated proteolysis of membrane-associated transcription factors

    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Dec 21;96(26):14765-70. PubMed PMID: 10611287; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC24722.
    Ju J, Mitchell T, Peters H 3rd, Haldenwang WG

    Sigma factor displacement from RNA polymerase during Bacillus subtilis sporulation

    J Bacteriol. 1999 Aug;181(16):4969-77. PubMed PMID: 10438769; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC93986.
    Wade KH, Schyns G, Opdyke JA, Moran CP Jr

    A region of sigmaK involved in promoter activation by GerE in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 1999 Jul;181(14):4365-73. PubMed PMID: 10400595; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC93939.
    Ichikawa H, Halberg R, Kroos L

    Negative regulation by the Bacillus subtilis GerE protein

    J Biol Chem. 1999 Mar 19;274(12):8322-7. PubMed PMID: 10075739.
    Bagyan I, Setlow B, Setlow P

    New small, acid-soluble proteins unique to spores of Bacillus subtilis: identification of the coding genes and regulation and function of two of these genes

    J Bacteriol. 1998 Dec;180(24):6704-12. PubMed PMID: 9852018; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC107777.
    Resnekov O, Losick R

    Negative regulation of the proteolytic activation of a developmental transcription factor in Bacillus subtilis

    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Mar 17;95(6):3162-7. PubMed PMID: 9501233; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC19712.
    Resnekov O, Alper S, Losick R

    Subcellular localization of proteins governing the proteolytic activation of a developmental transcription factor in Bacillus subtilis

    Genes Cells. 1996 Jun;1(6):529-42. PubMed PMID: 9078383.
    Carlson HC, Lu S, Kroos L, Haldenwang WG

    Exchange of precursor-specific elements between Pro-sigma E and Pro-sigma K of Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 1996 Jan;178(2):546-9. PubMed PMID: 8550479; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC177691.
    Halberg R, Kroos L

    Sporulation regulatory protein SpoIIID from Bacillus subtilis activates and represses transcription by both mother-cell-specific forms of RNA polymerase

    J Mol Biol. 1994 Oct 28;243(3):425-36. PubMed PMID: 7966271.
    Sacco M, Ricca E, Losick R, Cutting S

    An additional GerE-controlled gene encoding an abundant spore coat protein from Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 1995 Jan;177(2):372-7. PubMed PMID: 7814326; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC176600.
    Webb CD, Decatur A, Teleman A, Losick R

    Use of green fluorescent protein for visualization of cell-specific gene expression and subcellular protein localization during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 1995 Oct;177(20):5906-11. PubMed PMID: 7592342; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC177417.
    Stragier P, Kunkel B, Kroos L, Losick R

    Chromosomal rearrangement generating a composite gene for a developmental transcription factor

    Science. 1989 Jan 27;243(4890):507-12. PubMed PMID: 2536191.
    Kunkel B, Kroos L, Poth H, Youngman P, Losick R

    Temporal and spatial control of the mother-cell regulatory gene spoIIID of Bacillus subtilis

    Genes Dev. 1989 Nov;3(11):1735-44. PubMed PMID: 2514119.
    Kroos L, Kunkel B, Losick R

    Switch protein alters specificity of RNA polymerase containing a compartment-specific sigma factor

    Science. 1989 Jan 27;243(4890):526-9. PubMed PMID: 2492118.
    Kunkel B, Losick R, Stragier P

    The Bacillus subtilis gene for the development transcription factor sigma K is generated by excision of a dispensable DNA element containing a sporulation recombinase gene

    Genes Dev. 1990 Apr;4(4):525-35. PubMed PMID: 2163341.
    Cutting S, Oke V, Driks A, Losick R, Lu S, Kroos L

    A forespore checkpoint for mother cell gene expression during development in B

    subtilis. Cell. 1990 Jul 27;62(2):239-50. PubMed PMID: 2115401.
    Cutting S, Roels S, Losick R

    Sporulation operon spoIVF and the characterization of mutations that uncouple mother-cell from forespore gene expression in Bacillus subtilis

    J Mol Biol. 1991 Oct 20;221(4):1237-56. PubMed PMID: 1942049.
    Cutting S, Driks A, Schmidt R, Kunkel B, Losick R

    Forespore-specific transcription of a gene in the signal transduction pathway that governs Pro-sigma K processing in Bacillus subtilis

    Genes Dev. 1991 Mar;5(3):456-66. PubMed PMID: 1900494.
    Zheng LB, Losick R

    Cascade regulation of spore coat gene expression in Bacillus subtilis

    J Mol Biol. 1990 Apr 20;212(4):645-60. PubMed PMID: 1691789.
    Ricca E, Cutting S, Losick R

    Characterization of bofA, a gene involved in intercompartmental regulation of pro-sigma K processing during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 1992 May;174(10):3177-84. PubMed PMID: 1577688; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC205984.
    Zheng L, Halberg R, Roels S, Ichikawa H, Kroos L, Losick R

    Sporulation regulatory protein GerE from Bacillus subtilis binds to and can activate or repress transcription from promoters for mother-cell-specific genes

    J Mol Biol. 1992 Aug 20;226(4):1037-50. PubMed PMID: 1518043.
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