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Categories containing this gene/protein

translation, transcription factors and their control, cell envelope stress proteins (controlled by SigM, V, W, X, Y), essential genes

This gene is a member of the following regulons

SigM regulon

The TilS regulon


  • Coordinates on the chromosome (coding sequence): 74,929 -> 76,347
  • Phenotypes of a mutant

  • essential PubMed
  • The protein

    Catalyzed reaction/ biological activity

  • modifies C34 at the wobble position of tRNA2Ile to lysidine
  • Protein family

  • tRNA(Ile)-lysidine synthase family (according to Swiss-Prot)
  • Paralogous protein(s)

    Kinetic information




    Effectors of protein activity


  • 3A2K (from Geobacillus kaustophilus, complex with tRNA) PubMed
  • Localization

  • Cytoplasm (Homogeneous) PubMed
  • Interactions

  • TilS-HprT, the complex activates transcription of ftsH PubMed
  • Additional information

    Expression and Regulation


  • tilS-hprT-ftsH PubMed
  • Sigma factor

  • SigM PubMed
  • Regulation

    Regulatory mechanism

    Additional information

    Biological materials


  • MGNA-B922 (yacA::erm), available at the NBRP B. subtilis, Japan
  • Expression vector

    lacZ fusion

    GFP fusion

    two-hybrid system

    FLAG-tag construct


    Labs working on this gene/protein



    Suzuki T, Miyauchi K

    Discovery and characterization of tRNAIle lysidine synthetase (TilS)

    FEBS Lett. 2010 Jan 21;584(2):272-7. doi: 10.1016/j.febslet.2009.11.085. Review. PubMed PMID: 19944692.
    Grosjean H, Björk GR

    Enzymatic conversion of cytidine to lysidine in anticodon of bacterial isoleucyl-tRNA--an alternative way of RNA editing

    Trends Biochem Sci. 2004 Apr;29(4):165-8. Review. PubMed PMID: 15124629.

    Original publications

    Köhrer C, Mandal D, Gaston KW, Grosjean H, Limbach PA, Rajbhandary UL

    Life without tRNAIle-lysidine synthetase: translation of the isoleucine codon AUA in Bacillus subtilis lacking the canonical tRNA2Ile

    Nucleic Acids Res. 2014 Feb;42(3):1904-15. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkt1009. Epub 2013 Nov 4. PubMed PMID: 24194599; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3919564.
    Lin TH, Hu YN, Shaw GC

    Two enzymes, TilS and HprT, can form a complex to function as a transcriptional activator for the cell division protease gene ftsH in Bacillus subtilis

    J Biochem. 2014 Jan;155(1):5-16. doi: 10.1093/jb/mvt081. Epub 2013 Sep 3. PubMed PMID: 24001521.
    Fabret C, Dervyn E, Dalmais B, Guillot A, Marck C, Grosjean H, Noirot P

    Life without the essential bacterial tRNA Ile2-lysidine synthetase TilS: a case of tRNA gene recruitment in Bacillus subtilis

    Mol Microbiol. 2011 May;80(4):1062-74. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2011.07630.x. Epub 2011 Apr 5. PubMed PMID: 21435031.
    Nakanishi K, Bonnefond L, Kimura S, Suzuki T, Ishitani R, Nureki O

    Structural basis for translational fidelity ensured by transfer RNA lysidine synthetase

    Nature. 2009 Oct 22;461(7267):1144-8. doi: 10.1038/nature08474. PubMed PMID: 19847269.
    Salowe SP, Wiltsie J, Hawkins JC, Sonatore LM

    The catalytic flexibility of tRNAIle-lysidine synthetase can generate alternative tRNA substrates for isoleucyl-tRNA synthetase

    J Biol Chem. 2009 Apr 10;284(15):9656-62. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M809013200. Epub 2009 Feb 19. PubMed PMID: 19233850; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2665086.
    Eiamphungporn W, Helmann JD

    The Bacillus subtilis sigma(M) regulon and its contribution to cell envelope stress responses

    Mol Microbiol. 2008 Feb;67(4):830-48. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2007.06090.x. Epub 2008 Jan 2. PubMed PMID: 18179421; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3025603.
    Hunt A, Rawlins JP, Thomaides HB, Errington J

    Functional analysis of 11 putative essential genes in Bacillus subtilis

    Microbiology. 2006 Oct;152(Pt 10):2895-907. PubMed PMID: 17005971.
    Meile JC, Wu LJ, Ehrlich SD, Errington J, Noirot P

    Systematic localisation of proteins fused to the green fluorescent protein in Bacillus subtilis: identification of new proteins at the DNA replication factory

    Proteomics. 2006 Apr;6(7):2135-46. PubMed PMID: 16479537.
    Soma A, Ikeuchi Y, Kanemasa S, Kobayashi K, Ogasawara N, Ote T, Kato J, Watanabe K, Sekine Y, Suzuki T

    An RNA-modifying enzyme that governs both the codon and amino acid specificities of isoleucine tRNA

    Mol Cell. 2003 Sep;12(3):689-98. PubMed PMID: 14527414.
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