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Categories containing this gene/protein


cell wall/ other, transcription factors and their control, essential genes, phosphoproteins

This gene is a member of the following regulons


The WalR regulon


Gene


  • Coordinates on the chromosome (coding sequence): 4,153,696 -> 4,154,403
  • Phenotypes of a mutant

  • essential PubMed
  • a constitutively active form of WalR (WalR-R204C) results in constitutive expression of the WalR regulon, and in combination with a sepF mutation to the formation of cell wall-less L-forms PubMed
  • The protein


    Catalyzed reaction/ biological activity

    Protein family

  • OmpR family of two-component response regulators
  • Paralogous protein(s)

    Kinetic information

    Domains

    Modification

  • phosphorylated by WalK on an Asp residue
  • phosphorylated by PrkC on Thr-101, this stimulates WalR activity PubMed
  • Cofactors

    Effectors of protein activity

  • phosphorylation likely affects DNA-binding activity
  • Structure

  • 2D1V (DNA binding domain), 2ZWM (receiver domain)
  • Localization

  • cytoplasm (according to Swiss-Prot)
  • Interactions

  • WalK-WalR
  • Additional information

    Expression and Regulation


    Operon

  • walR-walK-yycH-yycI-walJ-htrC PubMed
  • Sigma factor

    Regulation

  • expressed during vegetative growth, repressed during stationary phase PubMed
  • induced at high temperature PubMed
  • Regulatory mechanism

    Additional information

    Biological materials


    Mutant

  • MGNA-B828 (yycF::erm), available at the NBRP B. subtilis, Japan
  • Expression vector

  • pGP2633, constitutive expression in B. subtilis (based on pBQ200), available in Jörg Stülke's lab
  • pGP2635, expression of His-WalR in E. coli (based on pWH844), available in Jörg Stülke's lab
  • lacZ fusion

    GFP fusion

    two-hybrid system

    FLAG-tag construct

    Antibody

    Labs working on this gene/protein


  • Kevin Devine, Dublin
  • References


    Reviews

    Devine KM

    Bacterial L-forms on tap: an improved methodology to generate Bacillus subtilis L-forms heralds a new era of research

    Mol Microbiol. 2012 Jan;83(1):10-3. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2011.07922.x. Epub 2011 Nov 29. PubMed PMID: 22126136.
    Dubrac S, Bisicchia P, Devine KM, Msadek T

    A matter of life and death: cell wall homeostasis and the WalKR (YycGF) essential signal transduction pathway

    Mol Microbiol. 2008 Dec;70(6):1307-22. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2008.06483.x. Epub 2008 Oct 23. Review. PubMed PMID: 19019149.
    Dubrac S, Msadek T

    Tearing down the wall: peptidoglycan metabolism and the WalK/WalR (YycG/YycF) essential two-component system

    Adv Exp Med Biol. 2008;631:214-28. doi: 10.1007/978-0-387-78885-2_15. Review. PubMed PMID: 18792692.
    Winkler ME, Hoch JA

    Essentiality, bypass, and targeting of the YycFG (VicRK) two-component regulatory system in gram-positive bacteria

    J Bacteriol. 2008 Apr;190(8):2645-8. doi: 10.1128/JB.01682-07. Epub 2008 Feb 1. PubMed PMID: 18245295; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2293224.
    Fabret C, Feher VA, Hoch JA

    Two-component signal transduction in Bacillus subtilis: how one organism sees its world

    J Bacteriol. 1999 Apr;181(7):1975-83. Review. PubMed PMID: 10094672; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC93607.

    The WalR regulon

    Salzberg LI, Powell L, Hokamp K, Botella E, Noone D, Devine KM

    The WalRK (YycFG) and σ(I) RsgI regulators cooperate to control CwlO and LytE expression in exponentially growing and stressed Bacillus subtilis cells

    Mol Microbiol. 2013 Jan;87(1):180-95. doi: 10.1111/mmi.12092. Epub 2012 Nov 30. PubMed PMID: 23199363.
    Bisicchia P, Noone D, Lioliou E, Howell A, Quigley S, Jensen T, Jarmer H, Devine KM

    The essential YycFG two-component system controls cell wall metabolism in Bacillus subtilis

    Mol Microbiol. 2007 Jul;65(1):180-200. PubMed PMID: 17581128.
    Howell A, Dubrac S, Andersen KK, Noone D, Fert J, Msadek T, Devine K

    Genes controlled by the essential YycG/YycF two-component system of Bacillus subtilis revealed through a novel hybrid regulator approach

    Mol Microbiol. 2003 Sep;49(6):1639-55. PubMed PMID: 12950927.
    Fukuchi K, Kasahara Y, Asai K, Kobayashi K, Moriya S, Ogasawara N

    The essential two-component regulatory system encoded by yycF and yycG modulates expression of the ftsAZ operon in Bacillus subtilis

    Microbiology. 2000 Jul;146 ( Pt 7):1573-83. PubMed PMID: 10878122.

    Other original Publications

    Libby EA, Goss LA, Dworkin J

    The Eukaryotic-Like Ser/Thr Kinase PrkC Regulates the Essential WalRK Two-Component System in Bacillus subtilis

    PLoS Genet. 2015 Jun 23;11(6):e1005275. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1005275. eCollection 2015 Jun. PubMed PMID: 26102633; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4478028.
    Dhiman A, Bhatnagar S, Kulshreshtha P, Bhatnagar R

    Functional characterization of WalRK: A two-component signal transduction system from Bacillus anthracis

    FEBS Open Bio. 2014 Jan 2;4:65-76. doi: 10.1016/j.fob.2013.12.005. eCollection 2014. PubMed PMID: 24490131; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3907690.
    Huang WZ, Wang JJ, Chen HJ, Chen JT, Shaw GC

    The heat-inducible essential response regulator WalR positively regulates transcription of sigI, mreBH and lytE in Bacillus subtilis under heat stress

    Res Microbiol. 2013 Dec;164(10):998-1008. doi: 10.1016/j.resmic.2013.10.003. Epub 2013 Oct 11. PubMed PMID: 24125693.
    Huang WZ, Wang JJ, Chen HJ, Chen JT, Shaw GC

    The heat-inducible essential response regulator WalR positively regulates transcription of sigI, mreBH and lytE in Bacillus subtilis under heat stress

    Res Microbiol. 2013 Dec;164(10):998-1008. doi: 10.1016/j.resmic.2013.10.003. Epub 2013 Oct 11. PubMed PMID: 24125693.
    Domínguez-Cuevas P, Mercier R, Leaver M, Kawai Y, Errington J

    The rod to L-form transition of Bacillus subtilis is limited by a requirement for the protoplast to escape from the cell wall sacculus

    Mol Microbiol. 2012 Jan;83(1):52-66. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2011.07920.x. Epub 2011 Nov 29. PubMed PMID: 22122227.
    Doi A, Okajima T, Gotoh Y, Tanizawa K, Utsumi R

    X-ray crystal structure of the DNA-binding domain of response regulator WalR essential to the cell viability of staphylococcus aureus and interaction with target DNA

    Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2010;74(9):1901-7. Epub 2010 Sep 7. PubMed PMID: 20834167.
    Jende I, Varughese KI, Devine KM

    Amino acid identity at one position within the alpha1 helix of both the histidine kinase and the response regulator of the WalRK and PhoPR two-component systems plays a crucial role in the specificity of phosphotransfer

    Microbiology. 2010 Jun;156(Pt 6):1848-59. doi: 10.1099/mic.0.037515-0. Epub 2010 Feb 18. PubMed PMID: 20167622.
    Gotoh Y, Doi A, Furuta E, Dubrac S, Ishizaki Y, Okada M, Igarashi M, Misawa N, Yoshikawa H, Okajima T, Msadek T, Utsumi R

    Novel antibacterial compounds specifically targeting the essential WalR response regulator

    J Antibiot (Tokyo). 2010 Mar;63(3):127-34. doi: 10.1038/ja.2010.4. Epub 2010 Jan 29. PubMed PMID: 20111065.
    Okajima T, Doi A, Okada A, Gotoh Y, Tanizawa K, Utsumi R

    Response regulator YycF essential for bacterial growth: X-ray crystal structure of the DNA-binding domain and its PhoB-like DNA recognition motif

    FEBS Lett. 2008 Oct 15;582(23-24):3434-8. doi: 10.1016/j.febslet.2008.09.007. Epub 2008 Sep 26. PubMed PMID: 18789936.
    Fukushima T, Szurmant H, Kim EJ, Perego M, Hoch JA

    A sensor histidine kinase co-ordinates cell wall architecture with cell division in Bacillus subtilis

    Mol Microbiol. 2008 Aug;69(3):621-32. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2008.06308.x. Epub 2008 Jun 28. PubMed PMID: 18573169; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2574549.
    Dubrac S, Boneca IG, Poupel O, Msadek T

    New insights into the WalK/WalR (YycG/YycF) essential signal transduction pathway reveal a major role in controlling cell wall metabolism and biofilm formation in Staphylococcus aureus

    J Bacteriol. 2007 Nov;189(22):8257-69. Epub 2007 Sep 7. PubMed PMID: 17827301; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2168699.
    McLaughlin PD, Bobay BG, Regel EJ, Thompson RJ, Hoch JA, Cavanagh J

    Predominantly buried residues in the response regulator Spo0F influence specific sensor kinase recognition

    FEBS Lett. 2007 Apr 3;581(7):1425-9. Epub 2007 Mar 5. PubMed PMID: 17350627; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1987376.
    Szurmant H, Nelson K, Kim EJ, Perego M, Hoch JA

    YycH regulates the activity of the essential YycFG two-component system in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2005 Aug;187(15):5419-26. PubMed PMID: 16030236; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1196008.
    Fabret C, Feher VA, Hoch JA

    Two-component signal transduction in Bacillus subtilis: how one organism sees its world

    J Bacteriol. 1999 Apr;181(7):1975-83. Review. PubMed PMID: 10094672; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC93607.
    Fabret C, Hoch JA

    A two-component signal transduction system essential for growth of Bacillus subtilis: implications for anti-infective therapy

    J Bacteriol. 1998 Dec;180(23):6375-83. PubMed PMID: 9829949; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC107725.
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