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Categories containing this gene/protein

trace metal homeostasis (Cu, Zn, Ni, Mn, Mo), transcription factors and their control, phosphoproteins

This gene is a member of the following regulons

The Zur regulon


  • Coordinates on the chromosome (coding sequence): 2,591,428 -> 2,591,865
  • The protein

    Catalyzed reaction/ biological activity

    Protein family

  • Fur family
  • Paralogous protein(s)

  • PerR, Fur
  • Kinetic information



  • phosphorylated on ser/ thr/ tyr PubMed
  • Cofactors

    Effectors of protein activity

  • sequential binding of zinc (two atoms per monomer) results in the activation of Zur dimer and thus in repression of the genes of the Zur regulon PubMed
  • zinc binding is negatively co-operative resulting in step-wise induction of the genes of the Zur regulon upon zinc depletion PubMed
  • Structure



  • forms dimers PubMed
  • Additional information

    Expression and Regulation


    Sigma factor


    Regulatory mechanism

    Additional information

    Biological materials


  • 1A904 ( zur::spec), PubMed, available at BGSC
  • Expression vector

    lacZ fusion

    GFP fusion

    two-hybrid system

    FLAG-tag construct


    Labs working on this gene/protein

  • John Helmann, Cornell University, USA Homepage
  • References

    Shin JH, Helmann JD

    Molecular logic of the Zur-regulated zinc deprivation response in Bacillus subtilis

    Nat Commun. 2016 Aug 26;7:12612. doi: 10.1038/ncomms12612. PubMed PMID: 27561249; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5007448.
    Prestel E, Noirot P, Auger S

    Genome-wide identification of Bacillus subtilis Zur-binding sites associated with a Zur box expands its known regulatory network

    BMC Microbiol. 2015 Feb 4;15:13. doi: 10.1186/s12866-015-0345-4. PubMed PMID: 25649915; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4324032.
    Ma Z, Gabriel SE, Helmann JD

    Sequential binding and sensing of Zn(II) by Bacillus subtilis Zur

    Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Nov;39(21):9130-8. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkr625. Epub 2011 Aug 5. PubMed PMID: 21821657; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3241647.
    Gabriel SE, Helmann JD

    Contributions of Zur-controlled ribosomal proteins to growth under zinc starvation conditions

    J Bacteriol. 2009 Oct;191(19):6116-22. doi: 10.1128/JB.00802-09. Epub 2009 Jul 31. PubMed PMID: 19648245; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2747910.
    Gabriel SE, Miyagi F, Gaballa A, Helmann JD

    Regulation of the Bacillus subtilis yciC gene and insights into the DNA-binding specificity of the zinc-sensing metalloregulator Zur

    J Bacteriol. 2008 May;190(10):3482-8. doi: 10.1128/JB.01978-07. Epub 2008 Mar 14. PubMed PMID: 18344368; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2395016.
    Lévine A, Vannier F, Absalon C, Kuhn L, Jackson P, Scrivener E, Labas V, Vinh J, Courtney P, Garin J, Séror SJ

    Analysis of the dynamic Bacillus subtilis Ser/Thr/Tyr phosphoproteome implicated in a wide variety of cellular processes

    Proteomics. 2006 Apr;6(7):2157-73. PubMed PMID: 16493705.
    Fuangthong M, Helmann JD

    Recognition of DNA by three ferric uptake regulator (Fur) homologs in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 2003 Nov;185(21):6348-57. PubMed PMID: 14563870; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC219410.
    Panina EM, Mironov AA, Gelfand MS

    Comparative genomics of bacterial zinc regulons: enhanced ion transport, pathogenesis, and rearrangement of ribosomal proteins

    Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Aug 19;100(17):9912-7. Epub 2003 Aug 6. PubMed PMID: 12904577; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC187884.
    Gaballa A, Wang T, Ye RW, Helmann JD

    Functional analysis of the Bacillus subtilis Zur regulon

    J Bacteriol. 2002 Dec;184(23):6508-14. PubMed PMID: 12426338; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC135443.
    Gaballa A, Helmann JD

    Identification of a zinc-specific metalloregulatory protein, Zur, controlling zinc transport operons in Bacillus subtilis

    J Bacteriol. 1998 Nov;180(22):5815-21. PubMed PMID: 9811636; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC107652.
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