RNA polymerase

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The enzyme responsible for transcription

  • As an important difference as compared to the E. coli enzyme, the B. subtilis RNA polymerase has a strong preference for G as first nucleotides in transcripts PubMed

Components of the RNA polymerase

Core subunits

Sigma factors

  • In addition to the housekeeping sigma factor, SigA, there are several other sigma factors with different promoter recognition specifiity that are active under specific conditions (such as stress or sporulation)

Small accessory subunits

  • RpoE: delta subunit
  • RpoY: epsilon subunit
  • YloH: omega subunit

Other interaction partners

Temporary interaction partners

  • Spx: transcription regulator, interacts with RpoA
  • MgsR: transcription regulator orthologous to Spx, interacts with RpoA
  • Btr: transcription activator PubMed
  • YlyA: modulates SigG-dependent transcription PubMed

Back to protein-protein interactions



Kevin S Lang, Houra Merrikh
The Clash of Macromolecular Titans: Replication-Transcription Conflicts in Bacteria.
Annu. Rev. Microbiol.: 2018, 72;71-88
[PubMed:29856930] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Thomas Fouqueau, Fabian Blombach, Finn Werner
Evolutionary Origins of Two-Barrel RNA Polymerases and Site-Specific Transcription Initiation.
Annu. Rev. Microbiol.: 2017, 71;331-348
[PubMed:28657884] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Georgiy A Belogurov, Irina Artsimovitch
Regulation of Transcript Elongation.
Annu. Rev. Microbiol.: 2015, 69;49-69
[PubMed:26132790] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Nan Zhang, Martin Buck
A perspective on the enhancer dependent bacterial RNA polymerase.
Biomolecules: 2015, 5(2);1012-9
[PubMed:26010401] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I e)

Andy Weiss, Lindsey N Shaw
Small things considered: the small accessory subunits of RNA polymerase in Gram-positive bacteria.
FEMS Microbiol. Rev.: 2015, 39(4);541-54
[PubMed:25878038] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Nikolay Zenkin
Multiple personalities of the RNA polymerase active centre.
Microbiology (Reading, Engl.): 2014, 160(Pt 7);1316-20
[PubMed:24763425] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Kimberly B Decker, Deborah M Hinton
Transcription regulation at the core: similarities among bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic RNA polymerases.
Annu. Rev. Microbiol.: 2013, 67;113-39
[PubMed:23768203] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Katelyn McGary, Evgeny Nudler
RNA polymerase and the ribosome: the close relationship.
Curr. Opin. Microbiol.: 2013, 16(2);112-7
[PubMed:23433801] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Lakshminarayan M Iyer, L Aravind
Insights from the architecture of the bacterial transcription apparatus.
J. Struct. Biol.: 2012, 179(3);299-319
[PubMed:22210308] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Finn Werner, Dina Grohmann
Evolution of multisubunit RNA polymerases in the three domains of life.
Nat. Rev. Microbiol.: 2011, 9(2);85-98
[PubMed:21233849] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Vladimir Svetlov, Evgeny Nudler
Macromolecular micromovements: how RNA polymerase translocates.
Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol.: 2009, 19(6);701-7
[PubMed:19889534] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Evgeny Nudler
RNA polymerase active center: the molecular engine of transcription.
Annu. Rev. Biochem.: 2009, 78;335-61
[PubMed:19489723] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

P J Lewis, G P Doherty, J Clarke
Transcription factor dynamics.
Microbiology (Reading, Engl.): 2008, 154(Pt 7);1837-44
[PubMed:18599813] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P p)

Kristina M Herbert, William J Greenleaf, Steven M Block
Single-molecule studies of RNA polymerase: motoring along.
Annu. Rev. Biochem.: 2008, 77;149-76
[PubMed:18410247] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P p)

Sergei Borukhov, Evgeny Nudler
RNA polymerase: the vehicle of transcription.
Trends Microbiol.: 2008, 16(3);126-34
[PubMed:18280161] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P p)

Vincent Trinh, Marie-France Langelier, Jacques Archambault, Benoit Coulombe
Structural perspective on mutations affecting the function of multisubunit RNA polymerases.
Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev.: 2006, 70(1);12-36
[PubMed:16524917] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P p)

W G Haldenwang
The sigma factors of Bacillus subtilis.
Microbiol. Rev.: 1995, 59(1);1-30
[PubMed:7708009] [WorldCat.org] (P p)

The structure of RNA polymerase

Katsuhiko S Murakami, Yeonoh Shin, Charles L Turnbough, Vadim Molodtsov
X-ray crystal structure of a reiterative transcription complex reveals an atypical RNA extension pathway.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.: 2017, 114(31);8211-8216
[PubMed:28652344] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Yun Yang, Vidya C Darbari, Nan Zhang, Duo Lu, Robert Glyde, Yi-Ping Wang, Jared T Winkelman, Richard L Gourse, Katsuhiko S Murakami, Martin Buck, Xiaodong Zhang
TRANSCRIPTION. Structures of the RNA polymerase-σ54 reveal new and conserved regulatory strategies.
Science: 2015, 349(6250);882-5
[PubMed:26293966] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Elecia B Johnston, Peter J Lewis, Renate Griffith
The interaction of Bacillus subtilis sigmaA with RNA polymerase.
Protein Sci.: 2009, 18(11);2287-97
[PubMed:19735077] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Sergei Borukhov, Evgeny Nudler
RNA polymerase holoenzyme: structure, function and biological implications.
Curr. Opin. Microbiol.: 2003, 6(2);93-100
[PubMed:12732296] [WorldCat.org] (P p)

Katsuhiko S Murakami, Seth A Darst
Bacterial RNA polymerases: the wholo story.
Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol.: 2003, 13(1);31-9
[PubMed:12581657] [WorldCat.org] (P p)

S A Darst
Bacterial RNA polymerase.
Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol.: 2001, 11(2);155-62
[PubMed:11297923] [WorldCat.org] (P p)

Important original publications

Jin Park, Marta Dies, Yihan Lin, Sahand Hormoz, Stephanie E Smith-Unna, Sofia Quinodoz, María Jesús Hernández-Jiménez, Jordi Garcia-Ojalvo, James C W Locke, Michael B Elowitz
Molecular Time Sharing through Dynamic Pulsing in Single Cells.
Cell Syst: 2018, 6(2);216-229.e15
[PubMed:29454936] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (P p)

Jatin Narula, Abhinav Tiwari, Oleg A Igoshin
Role of Autoregulation and Relative Synthesis of Operon Partners in Alternative Sigma Factor Networks.
PLoS Comput. Biol.: 2016, 12(12);e1005267
[PubMed:27977677] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I e)

Cong Ma, Xiao Yang, Peter J Lewis
Bacterial Transcription Inhibitor of RNA Polymerase Holoenzyme Formation by Structure-Based Drug Design: From in Silico Screening to Validation.
ACS Infect Dis: 2016, 2(1);39-46
[PubMed:27622946] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Shreya Sengupta, Ranjit Kumar Prajapati, Jayanta Mukhopadhyay
Promoter Escape with Bacterial Two-component σ Factor Suggests Retention of σ Region Two in the Elongation Complex.
J. Biol. Chem.: 2015, 290(47);28575-83
[PubMed:26400263] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Evan T Graves, Camille Duboc, Jun Fan, François Stransky, Mathieu Leroux-Coyau, Terence R Strick
A dynamic DNA-repair complex observed by correlative single-molecule nanomanipulation and fluorescence.
Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol.: 2015, 22(6);452-7
[PubMed:25961799] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Matthew H Larson, Rachel A Mooney, Jason M Peters, Tricia Windgassen, Dhananjaya Nayak, Carol A Gross, Steven M Block, William J Greenleaf, Robert Landick, Jonathan S Weissman
A pause sequence enriched at translation start sites drives transcription dynamics in vivo.
Science: 2014, 344(6187);1042-7
[PubMed:24789973] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Hsin-Yi Yeh, Hsiu-Ting Hsu, Tsung-Ching Chen, Kuei-Min Chung, Kung-Ming Liou, Ban-Yang Chang
The reduction in σ-promoter recognition flexibility as induced by core RNAP is required for σ to discern the optimal promoter spacing.
Biochem. J.: 2013, 455(2);185-93
[PubMed:23875654] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Vladimir Mekler, Konstantin Severinov
Cooperativity and interaction energy threshold effects in recognition of the -10 promoter element by bacterial RNA polymerase.
Nucleic Acids Res.: 2013, 41(15);7276-85
[PubMed:23771146] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Ignacio J Cabrera-Ostertag, Amy T Cavanagh, Karen M Wassarman
Initiating nucleotide identity determines efficiency of RNA synthesis from 6S RNA templates in Bacillus subtilis but not Escherichia coli.
Nucleic Acids Res.: 2013, 41(15);7501-11
[PubMed:23761441] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Benedikt M Beckmann, Philipp G Hoch, Manja Marz, Dagmar K Willkomm, Margarita Salas, Roland K Hartmann
A pRNA-induced structural rearrangement triggers 6S-1 RNA release from RNA polymerase in Bacillus subtilis.
EMBO J.: 2012, 31(7);1727-38
[PubMed:22333917] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Olivier Delumeau, François Lecointe, Jan Muntel, Alain Guillot, Eric Guédon, Véronique Monnet, Michael Hecker, Dörte Becher, Patrice Polard, Philippe Noirot
The dynamic protein partnership of RNA polymerase in Bacillus subtilis.
Proteomics: 2011, 11(15);2992-3001
[PubMed:21710567] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Yoko Kusuya, Ken Kurokawa, Shu Ishikawa, Naotake Ogasawara, Taku Oshima
Transcription factor GreA contributes to resolving promoter-proximal pausing of RNA polymerase in Bacillus subtilis cells.
J. Bacteriol.: 2011, 193(12);3090-9
[PubMed:21515770] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Houra Merrikh, Cristina Machón, William H Grainger, Alan D Grossman, Panos Soultanas
Co-directional replication-transcription conflicts lead to replication restart.
Nature: 2011, 470(7335);554-7
[PubMed:21350489] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Shu Ishikawa, Taku Oshima, Ken Kurokawa, Yoko Kusuya, Naotake Ogasawara
RNA polymerase trafficking in Bacillus subtilis cells.
J. Bacteriol.: 2010, 192(21);5778-87
[PubMed:20817769] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)

Geoff P Doherty, Mark J Fogg, Anthony J Wilkinson, Peter J Lewis
Small subunits of RNA polymerase: localization, levels and implications for core enzyme composition.
Microbiology (Reading, Engl.): 2010, 156(Pt 12);3532-43
[PubMed:20724389] [WorldCat.org] [DOI] (I p)