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Gene name sigF
Synonyms spoIIAC
Essential no
Product RNA polymerase forespore-specific
(early) sigma factor SigF
Function transcription of sporulation genes (early forespore)
Gene expression levels in SubtiExpress: sigF
Interactions involving this protein in SubtInteract: SigF
Metabolic function and regulation of this protein in SubtiPathways:
MW, pI 29 kDa, 5.078
Gene length, protein length 765 bp, 255 aa
Immediate neighbours spoVAA, spoIIAB
Sequences Protein DNA DNA_with_flanks
Genetic context
SigF context.gif
This image was kindly provided by SubtiList
Expression at a glance   PubMed
SigF expression.png


Categories containing this gene/protein

transcription, sigma factors and their control, sporulation proteins, membrane proteins

This gene is a member of the following regulons

AbrB regulon, SigF regulon, SigG regulon, SigH regulon, SinR regulon, Spo0A regulon

The SigF regulon

The gene

Basic information

  • Locus tag: BSU23450

Phenotypes of a mutant

Database entries

  • DBTBS entry: [1]
  • SubtiList entry: [2]

Additional information

The protein

Basic information/ Evolution

  • Catalyzed reaction/ biological activity:
  • Protein family: sigma-70 factor family (according to Swiss-Prot)
  • Paralogous protein(s): SigG

Genes controlled by SigF

dacF-spoIIAA-spoIIAB-sigF, sigG, pbpF, yphA-seaA

Extended information on the protein

  • Kinetic information:
  • Domains:
  • Modification:
  • Cofactor(s):
  • Effectors of protein activity:

Database entries

  • Structure: 1L0O (complex with SpoIIAB, Geobacillus stearothermophilus)
  • KEGG entry: [3]
  • E.C. number:

Additional information

Expression and regulation

  • Regulation:
    • repressed by casamino acids PubMed
    • dacF: expressed during sporulation
    • spoIIAA: expressed early during sporulation
    • expressed under conditions that trigger sporulation (Spo0A) PubMed
  • Additional information:

Biological materials

  • Mutant:
  • Expression vector:
  • lacZ fusion:
  • GFP fusion:
  • two-hybrid system:
  • Antibody:

Labs working on this gene/protein

Your additional remarks



Michiel J L de Hoon, Patrick Eichenberger, Dennis Vitkup
Hierarchical evolution of the bacterial sporulation network.
Curr. Biol.: 2010, 20(17);R735-45
[PubMed:20833318] [] [DOI] (I p)

The SigF regulon

Stephanie T Wang, Barbara Setlow, Erin M Conlon, Jessica L Lyon, Daisuke Imamura, Tsutomu Sato, Peter Setlow, Richard Losick, Patrick Eichenberger
The forespore line of gene expression in Bacillus subtilis.
J. Mol. Biol.: 2006, 358(1);16-37
[PubMed:16497325] [] [DOI] (P p)

Modeling of SigF activation

Georgios Fengos, Dagmar Iber
Prediction stability in a data-based, mechanistic model of σF regulation during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis.
Sci Rep: 2013, 3;2755
[PubMed:24067622] [] [DOI] (I e)

Dagmar Iber
Inferring Biological Mechanisms by Data-Based Mathematical Modelling: Compartment-Specific Gene Activation during Sporulation in Bacillus subtilis as a Test Case.
Adv Bioinformatics: 2011, 2011;124062
[PubMed:22312331] [] [DOI] (I p)

Jin Hwan Do, Masao Nagasaki, Satoru Miyano
The systems approach to the prespore-specific activation of sigma factor SigF in Bacillus subtilis.
BioSystems: 2010, 100(3);178-84
[PubMed:20298743] [] [DOI] (I p)

Original Publications

Jatin Narula, Seram N Devi, Masaya Fujita, Oleg A Igoshin
Ultrasensitivity of the Bacillus subtilis sporulation decision.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.: 2012, 109(50);E3513-22
[PubMed:23169620] [] [DOI] (I p)

Mónica Serrano, Gonçalo Real, Joana Santos, Jorge Carneiro, Charles P Moran, Adriano O Henriques
A negative feedback loop that limits the ectopic activation of a cell type-specific sporulation sigma factor of Bacillus subtilis.
PLoS Genet.: 2011, 7(9);e1002220
[PubMed:21935351] [] [DOI] (I p)

Amy H Camp, Anna F Wang, Richard Losick
A small protein required for the switch from {sigma}F to {sigma}G during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis.
J. Bacteriol.: 2011, 193(1);116-24
[PubMed:21037003] [] [DOI] (I p)

Onuma Chumsakul, Hiroki Takahashi, Taku Oshima, Takahiro Hishimoto, Shigehiko Kanaya, Naotake Ogasawara, Shu Ishikawa
Genome-wide binding profiles of the Bacillus subtilis transition state regulator AbrB and its homolog Abh reveals their interactive role in transcriptional regulation.
Nucleic Acids Res.: 2011, 39(2);414-28
[PubMed:20817675] [] [DOI] (I p)

Amy H Camp, Richard Losick
A feeding tube model for activation of a cell-specific transcription factor during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis.
Genes Dev.: 2009, 23(8);1014-24
[PubMed:19390092] [] [DOI] (I p)

Céline Karmazyn-Campelli, Lamya Rhayat, Rut Carballido-López, Sandra Duperrier, Niels Frandsen, Patrick Stragier
How the early sporulation sigma factor sigmaF delays the switch to late development in Bacillus subtilis.
Mol. Microbiol.: 2008, 67(5);1169-80
[PubMed:18208527] [] [DOI] (I p)

Oleg A Igoshin, Margaret S Brody, Chester W Price, Michael A Savageau
Distinctive topologies of partner-switching signaling networks correlate with their physiological roles.
J. Mol. Biol.: 2007, 369(5);1333-52
[PubMed:17498739] [] [DOI] (P p)

Oleg A Igoshin, Chester W Price, Michael A Savageau
Signalling network with a bistable hysteretic switch controls developmental activation of the sigma transcription factor in Bacillus subtilis.
Mol. Microbiol.: 2006, 61(1);165-84
[PubMed:16824103] [] [DOI] (P p)

Jonathan Dworkin, Richard Losick
Developmental commitment in a bacterium.
Cell: 2005, 121(3);401-9
[PubMed:15882622] [] [DOI] (P p)

Masaya Fujita, José Eduardo González-Pastor, Richard Losick
High- and low-threshold genes in the Spo0A regulon of Bacillus subtilis.
J. Bacteriol.: 2005, 187(4);1357-68
[PubMed:15687200] [] [DOI] (P p)

Joanna Clarkson, Iain D Campbell, Michael D Yudkin
Efficient regulation of sigmaF, the first sporulation-specific sigma factor in B.subtilis.
J. Mol. Biol.: 2004, 342(4);1187-95
[PubMed:15351644] [] [DOI] (P p)

Karen Carniol, Tae-Jong Kim, Chester W Price, Richard Losick
Insulation of the sigmaF regulatory system in Bacillus subtilis.
J. Bacteriol.: 2004, 186(13);4390-4
[PubMed:15205443] [] [DOI] (P p)

Karen Carniol, Patrick Eichenberger, Richard Losick
A threshold mechanism governing activation of the developmental regulatory protein sigma F in Bacillus subtilis.
J. Biol. Chem.: 2004, 279(15);14860-70
[PubMed:14744853] [] [DOI] (P p)

Margaret S Ho, Karen Carniol, Richard Losick
Evidence in support of a docking model for the release of the transcription factor sigma F from the antisigma factor SpoIIAB in Bacillus subtilis.
J. Biol. Chem.: 2003, 278(23);20898-905
[PubMed:12676949] [] [DOI] (P p)

Ulrike Mäder, Georg Homuth, Christian Scharf, Knut Büttner, Rüdiger Bode, Michael Hecker
Transcriptome and proteome analysis of Bacillus subtilis gene expression modulated by amino acid availability.
J. Bacteriol.: 2002, 184(15);4288-95
[PubMed:12107147] [] (P p)

Jennifer T Kemp, Adam Driks, Richard Losick
FtsA mutants of Bacillus subtilis impaired in sporulation.
J. Bacteriol.: 2002, 184(14);3856-63
[PubMed:12081956] [] (P p)

J Dworkin, R Losick
Differential gene expression governed by chromosomal spatial asymmetry.
Cell: 2001, 107(3);339-46
[PubMed:11701124] [] (P p)

Q Pan, D A Garsin, R Losick
Self-reinforcing activation of a cell-specific transcription factor by proteolysis of an anti-sigma factor in B. subtilis.
Mol. Cell: 2001, 8(4);873-83
[PubMed:11684022] [] (P p)

P Fawcett, P Eichenberger, R Losick, P Youngman
The transcriptional profile of early to middle sporulation in Bacillus subtilis.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.: 2000, 97(14);8063-8
[PubMed:10869437] [] [DOI] (P p)

E A Campbell, S A Darst
The anti-sigma factor SpoIIAB forms a 2:1 complex with sigma(F), contacting multiple conserved regions of the sigma factor.
J. Mol. Biol.: 2000, 300(1);17-28
[PubMed:10864495] [] [DOI] (P p)

A Petersohn, S Engelmann, P Setlow, M Hecker
The katX gene of Bacillus subtilis is under dual control of sigmaB and sigmaF.
Mol. Gen. Genet.: 1999, 262(1);173-9
[PubMed:10503549] [] (P p)

N King, O Dreesen, P Stragier, K Pogliano, R Losick
Septation, dephosphorylation, and the activation of sigmaF during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis.
Genes Dev.: 1999, 13(9);1156-67
[PubMed:10323866] [] (P p)

N Frandsen, I Barák, C Karmazyn-Campelli, P Stragier
Transient gene asymmetry during sporulation and establishment of cell specificity in Bacillus subtilis.
Genes Dev.: 1999, 13(4);394-9
[PubMed:10049355] [] (P p)

D A Garsin, L Duncan, D M Paskowitz, R Losick
The kinase activity of the antisigma factor SpoIIAB is required for activation as well as inhibition of transcription factor sigmaF during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis.
J. Mol. Biol.: 1998, 284(3);569-78
[PubMed:9826499] [] [DOI] (P p)

D A Garsin, D M Paskowitz, L Duncan, R Losick
Evidence for common sites of contact between the antisigma factor SpoIIAB and its partners SpoIIAA and the developmental transcription factor sigmaF in Bacillus subtilis.
J. Mol. Biol.: 1998, 284(3);557-68
[PubMed:9826498] [] [DOI] (P p)

I Bagyan, L Casillas-Martinez, P Setlow
The katX gene, which codes for the catalase in spores of Bacillus subtilis, is a forespore-specific gene controlled by sigmaF, and KatX is essential for hydrogen peroxide resistance of the germinating spore.
J. Bacteriol.: 1998, 180(8);2057-62
[PubMed:9555886] [] (P p)

K Pogliano, A E Hofmeister, R Losick
Disappearance of the sigma E transcription factor from the forespore and the SpoIIE phosphatase from the mother cell contributes to establishment of cell-specific gene expression during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis.
J. Bacteriol.: 1997, 179(10);3331-41
[PubMed:9150232] [] (P p)

M Gomez, S M Cutting
Expression of the Bacillus subtilis spoIVB gene is under dual sigma F/sigma G control.
Microbiology (Reading, Engl.): 1996, 142 ( Pt 12);3453-7
[PubMed:9004507] [] (P p)

P J Lewis, T Magnin, J Errington
Compartmentalized distribution of the proteins controlling the prespore-specific transcription factor sigmaF of Bacillus subtilis.
Genes Cells: 1996, 1(10);881-94
[PubMed:9077448] [] (P p)

A L Decatur, R Losick
Three sites of contact between the Bacillus subtilis transcription factor sigmaF and its antisigma factor SpoIIAB.
Genes Dev.: 1996, 10(18);2348-58
[PubMed:8824593] [] (P p)

A Decatur, R Losick
Identification of additional genes under the control of the transcription factor sigma F of Bacillus subtilis.
J. Bacteriol.: 1996, 178(16);5039-41
[PubMed:8759874] [] (P p)

S Alper, A Dufour, D A Garsin, L Duncan, R Losick
Role of adenosine nucleotides in the regulation of a stress-response transcription factor in Bacillus subtilis.
J. Mol. Biol.: 1996, 260(2);165-77
[PubMed:8764398] [] [DOI] (P p)

L Duncan, S Alper, R Losick
SpoIIAA governs the release of the cell-type specific transcription factor sigma F from its anti-sigma factor SpoIIAB.
J. Mol. Biol.: 1996, 260(2);147-64
[PubMed:8764397] [] [DOI] (P p)

A Feucht, T Magnin, M D Yudkin, J Errington
Bifunctional protein required for asymmetric cell division and cell-specific transcription in Bacillus subtilis.
Genes Dev.: 1996, 10(7);794-803
[PubMed:8846916] [] (P p)

L Duncan, S Alper, F Arigoni, R Losick, P Stragier
Activation of cell-specific transcription by a serine phosphatase at the site of asymmetric division.
Science: 1995, 270(5236);641-4
[PubMed:7570023] [] (P p)

C D Webb, A Decatur, A Teleman, R Losick
Use of green fluorescent protein for visualization of cell-specific gene expression and subcellular protein localization during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis.
J. Bacteriol.: 1995, 177(20);5906-11
[PubMed:7592342] [] (P p)

E J Harry, K Pogliano, R Losick
Use of immunofluorescence to visualize cell-specific gene expression during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis.
J. Bacteriol.: 1995, 177(12);3386-93
[PubMed:7768847] [] (P p)

R Schuch, P J Piggot
The dacF-spoIIA operon of Bacillus subtilis, encoding sigma F, is autoregulated.
J. Bacteriol.: 1994, 176(13);4104-10
[PubMed:8021191] [] (P p)

P J Lewis, S R Partridge, J Errington
Sigma factors, asymmetry, and the determination of cell fate in Bacillus subtilis.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.: 1994, 91(9);3849-53
[PubMed:8171000] [] (P p)

S Alper, L Duncan, R Losick
An adenosine nucleotide switch controlling the activity of a cell type-specific transcription factor in B. subtilis.
Cell: 1994, 77(2);195-205
[PubMed:8168129] [] (P p)

D Foulger, J Errington
Effects of new mutations in the spoIIAB gene of Bacillus subtilis on the regulation of sigma F and sigma G activities.
J. Gen. Microbiol.: 1993, 139(12);3197-203
[PubMed:8126438] [] (P p)

K T Min, C M Hilditch, B Diederich, J Errington, M D Yudkin
Sigma F, the first compartment-specific transcription factor of B. subtilis, is regulated by an anti-sigma factor that is also a protein kinase.
Cell: 1993, 74(4);735-42
[PubMed:8358793] [] (P p)

L Duncan, R Losick
SpoIIAB is an anti-sigma factor that binds to and inhibits transcription by regulatory protein sigma F from Bacillus subtilis.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.: 1993, 90(6);2325-9
[PubMed:8460142] [] (P p)

J J Wu, R Schuch, P J Piggot
Characterization of a Bacillus subtilis sporulation operon that includes genes for an RNA polymerase sigma factor and for a putative DD-carboxypeptidase.
J. Bacteriol.: 1992, 174(15);4885-92
[PubMed:1629150] [] (P p)

K York, T J Kenney, S Satola, C P Moran, H Poth, P Youngman
Spo0A controls the sigma A-dependent activation of Bacillus subtilis sporulation-specific transcription unit spoIIE.
J. Bacteriol.: 1992, 174(8);2648-58
[PubMed:1556084] [] (P p)

D Sun, P Fajardo-Cavazos, M D Sussman, F Tovar-Rojo, R M Cabrera-Martinez, P Setlow
Effect of chromosome location of Bacillus subtilis forespore genes on their spo gene dependence and transcription by E sigma F: identification of features of good E sigma F-dependent promoters.
J. Bacteriol.: 1991, 173(24);7867-74
[PubMed:1744043] [] (P p)

P Margolis, A Driks, R Losick
Establishment of cell type by compartmentalized activation of a transcription factor.
Science: 1991, 254(5031);562-5
[PubMed:1948031] [] (P p)

N Illing, J Errington
Genetic regulation of morphogenesis in Bacillus subtilis: roles of sigma E and sigma F in prespore engulfment.
J. Bacteriol.: 1991, 173(10);3159-69
[PubMed:1902463] [] (P p)

S R Partridge, D Foulger, J Errington
The role of sigma F in prespore-specific transcription in Bacillus subtilis.
Mol. Microbiol.: 1991, 5(3);757-67
[PubMed:1904527] [] (P p)

R Schmidt, P Margolis, L Duncan, R Coppolecchia, C P Moran, R Losick
Control of developmental transcription factor sigma F by sporulation regulatory proteins SpoIIAA and SpoIIAB in Bacillus subtilis.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.: 1990, 87(23);9221-5
[PubMed:2123551] [] (P p)

J J Wu, M G Howard, P J Piggot
Regulation of transcription of the Bacillus subtilis spoIIA locus.
J. Bacteriol.: 1989, 171(2);692-8
[PubMed:2492512] [] (P p)

J Errington, J Mandelstam
Use of a lacZ gene fusion to determine the dependence pattern of sporulation operon spoIIA in spo mutants of Bacillus subtilis.
J. Gen. Microbiol.: 1986, 132(11);2967-76
[PubMed:3114419] [] (P p)

M D Yudkin
The sigma-like product of sporulation gene spoIIAC of Bacillus subtilis is toxic to Escherichia coli.
Mol. Gen. Genet.: 1986, 202(1);55-7
[PubMed:3007937] [] (P p)

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