Sigma factors

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Overview of Bacillus subtilis sigma factors

  • SigA: household sigma factor
    (list of SigA controlled genes)
  • SigB: general stress sigma factor
  • SigD: sigma factor for chemotaxis and motility genes
  • SigE: early mother cell-specific sporulation sigma factor
  • SigF: early forespore-specific sporulation sigma factor
  • SigG: late forespore-specific sporulation sigma factor
  • SigH: sigma factor that controls genes of the transition phase
  • SigI:
  • SigK: late mother cell-specific sporulation sigma factor
  • SigL: enhancer-dependent sigma factor (Sigma-54 family)
  • SigM: ECF sigma factor, controls genes required at high salt concentrations
  • SigV: ECF sigma factor
  • SigW: ECF sigma factor, mediates the transcriptional response to cell wall stress PubMed
  • SigX: ECF sigma factor
  • SigY: ECF sigma factor
  • SigZ: ECF sigma factor
  • Xpf
  • YlaC
  • YvrI-YvrHa: (composite sigma factor)

Targets of ECF sigma factors

Ahmed Gaballa, Veronica Guariglia-Oropeza, Franziska Dürr, Bronwyn G Butcher, Albert Y Chen, Pete Chandrangsu, John D Helmann
Modulation of extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factor promoter selectivity by spacer region sequence.
Nucleic Acids Res.: 2018, 46(1);134-145
[PubMed:29069433] [] [DOI] (I p)

Yun Luo, Kei Asai, Yoshito Sadaie, John D Helmann
Transcriptomic and phenotypic characterization of a Bacillus subtilis strain without extracytoplasmic function σ factors.
J. Bacteriol.: 2010, 192(21);5736-45
[PubMed:20817771] [] [DOI] (I p)

Important Reviews

John D Helmann
Bacillus subtilis extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors and defense of the cell envelope.
Curr. Opin. Microbiol.: 2016, 30;122-132
[PubMed:26901131] [] [DOI] (I p)

Andrey Feklístov, Brian D Sharon, Seth A Darst, Carol A Gross
Bacterial sigma factors: a historical, structural, and genomic perspective.
Annu. Rev. Microbiol.: 2014, 68;357-76
[PubMed:25002089] [] [DOI] (I p)

Bianca Mendes Souza, Thiago Luiz de Paula Castro, Rodrigo Dias de Oliveira Carvalho, Nubia Seyffert, Artur Silva, Anderson Miyoshi, Vasco Azevedo
σ(ECF) factors of gram-positive bacteria: a focus on Bacillus subtilis and the CMNR group.
Virulence: 2014, 5(5);587-600
[PubMed:24921931] [] [DOI] (I p)

Thorsten Mascher
Signaling diversity and evolution of extracytoplasmic function (ECF) σ factors.
Curr. Opin. Microbiol.: 2013, 16(2);148-55
[PubMed:23466210] [] [DOI] (I p)

Lakshminarayan M Iyer, L Aravind
Insights from the architecture of the bacterial transcription apparatus.
J. Struct. Biol.: 2012, 179(3);299-319
[PubMed:22210308] [] [DOI] (I p)

Sofia Österberg, Teresa del Peso-Santos, Victoria Shingler
Regulation of alternative sigma factor use.
Annu. Rev. Microbiol.: 2011, 65;37-55
[PubMed:21639785] [] [DOI] (I p)

Tanja M Gruber, Carol A Gross
Multiple sigma subunits and the partitioning of bacterial transcription space.
Annu. Rev. Microbiol.: 2003, 57;441-66
[PubMed:14527287] [] [DOI] (P p)

John D Helmann
The extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors.
Adv. Microb. Physiol.: 2002, 46;47-110
[PubMed:12073657] [] (P p)

L Kroos, Y T Yu
Regulation of sigma factor activity during Bacillus subtilis development.
Curr. Opin. Microbiol.: 2000, 3(6);553-60
[PubMed:11121773] [] (P p)

J D Helmann
Anti-sigma factors.
Curr. Opin. Microbiol.: 1999, 2(2);135-41
[PubMed:10322161] [] [DOI] (P p)

L Kroos, B Zhang, H Ichikawa, Y T Yu
Control of sigma factor activity during Bacillus subtilis sporulation.
Mol. Microbiol.: 1999, 31(5);1285-94
[PubMed:10200951] [] (P p)

K T Hughes, K Mathee
The anti-sigma factors.
Annu. Rev. Microbiol.: 1998, 52;231-86
[PubMed:9891799] [] [DOI] (P p)

W G Haldenwang
The sigma factors of Bacillus subtilis.
Microbiol. Rev.: 1995, 59(1);1-30
[PubMed:7708009] [] (P p)

R Losick, P Stragier
Crisscross regulation of cell-type-specific gene expression during development in B. subtilis.
Nature: 1992, 355(6361);601-4
[PubMed:1538747] [] [DOI] (P p)

P Stragier
Dances with sigmas.
EMBO J.: 1991, 10(12);3559-66
[PubMed:1935888] [] (P p)

P Stragier, R Losick
Cascades of sigma factors revisited.
Mol. Microbiol.: 1990, 4(11);1801-6
[PubMed:2127951] [] (P p)

R H Doi, L F Wang
Multiple procaryotic ribonucleic acid polymerase sigma factors.
Microbiol. Rev.: 1986, 50(3);227-43
[PubMed:3095618] [] (P p)