The T-box element is an RNA switch that controls genes involved in amino acid metabolism.
In the absence of an amino acid, the uncharged tRNA binds the T-box region in the leader region of the mRNA of the controlled gene/ operon and thereby prevents the formation of a transcription terminator. The result is gene expression of the target gene in the absence of the specific amino acid.
Complete list of genes controlled by T-box elements
- Induction by alanine limitation
- Induction by aspartate limitation
- Induction by cysteine limitation
- Induction by glycine limitation
- Induction by histidine limitation
- Induction by isoleucine limitation
- Induction by leucine limitation
- Induction by phenyalanine limitation
- Induction by proline limitation
- Induction by serine limitation
- Induction by threonine limitation
- Induction by tryptophan limitation
- Induction by tyrosine limitation
- Induction by valine limitation
Structure of a T-box ribowsitch
Xianyang Fang, Malgorzata Michnicka, Yikan Zhang, Yun-Xing Wang, Edward P Nikonowicz
Capture and Release of tRNA by the T-Loop Receptor in the Function of the T-Box Riboswitch.
Biochemistry: 2017, 56(28);3549-3558
Melinda S Gerdeman, Tina M Henkin, Jennifer V Hines
Solution structure of the Bacillus subtilis T-box antiterminator RNA: seven nucleotide bulge characterized by stacking and flexibility.
J. Mol. Biol.: 2003, 326(1);189-201
Reviews on T-box regulation
Jinwei Zhang, Adrian R Ferré-D'Amaré
Direct evaluation of tRNA aminoacylation status by the T-box riboswitch using tRNA-mRNA stacking and steric readout.
Mol. Cell: 2014, 55(1);148-55
Tina M Henkin
The T box riboswitch: A novel regulatory RNA that utilizes tRNA as its ligand.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta: 2014, 1839(10);959-963
Nicholas J Green, Frank J Grundy, Tina M Henkin
The T box mechanism: tRNA as a regulatory molecule.
FEBS Lett.: 2010, 584(2);318-24
Ana Gutiérrez-Preciado, Tina M Henkin, Frank J Grundy, Charles Yanofsky, Enrique Merino
Biochemical features and functional implications of the RNA-based T-box regulatory mechanism.
Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev.: 2009, 73(1);36-61
Michiel Wels, Tom Groot Kormelink, Michiel Kleerebezem, Roland J Siezen, Christof Francke
An in silico analysis of T-box regulated genes and T-box evolution in prokaryotes, with emphasis on prediction of substrate specificity of transporters.
BMC Genomics: 2008, 9;330
T M Henkin, F J Grundy
Sensing metabolic signals with nascent RNA transcripts: the T box and S box riboswitches as paradigms.
Cold Spring Harb. Symp. Quant. Biol.: 2006, 71;231-7
Frank J Grundy, Tessa R Moir, Margaret T Haldeman, Tina M Henkin
Sequence requirements for terminators and antiterminators in the T box transcription antitermination system: disparity between conservation and functional requirements.
Nucleic Acids Res.: 2002, 30(7);1646-55
M Pelchat, J Lapointe
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase genes of Bacillus subtilis: organization and regulation.
Biochem. Cell Biol.: 1999, 77(4);343-7
T M Henkin
tRNA-directed transcription antitermination.
Mol. Microbiol.: 1994, 13(3);381-7
F J Grundy, T M Henkin
tRNA as a positive regulator of transcription antitermination in B. subtilis.
Cell: 1993, 74(3);475-82